Lightning Articles: Alphabetical by Author

* indicates – not yet in my possession, but being retrieved
& indicates referred to but I cannot obtain the article – all help appreciated to find a copy
‘ indicates articles I have but am unable to translate to any degree otherwise all articles in my possession – I think!

Abt, J.L. The Pupillary Responses After Being Struck by Lightning/ JAMA/ 254(23):3312/ 1985.

1.6 Adekoya N, Nolte KB. Struck-by-lightning deaths in the United States. J Environ Health. 2005 May;67(9):45-50, 58.

‘ Afanasev, ./ Successful treatment of children in group injury by lightning/ Vest. Khir./ Nov 1979/123(11):132-3.

Agnew, J./ Lightning Injury/ Proc. Div. Surg., Royal Bris. Hosp./ 1986:61-63.

Akahane, T., and Okishio R./ Lightning Injury: Report of Two Cases/ Burns/ 10:45/ 1983.

Alcock, R., and Fletcher Jones, H.C./ Abdominal Injury from Lightning. / Lancet/ 1:823 5/ 1949.

Alexandridis A. Fotiou F. Dimitriadis A. Tsitsopoulos P. Stefani FH./ Neuropathia nervi optici nach Blitzschlagunfall elektrophysiologische und computertomographische Befunde. / Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 190(1):56 8/ 1987 Jan.

& Alonso-Treceno, J., and Sanchez-Navarro, J./ Lesiones oticas por rayo. A proposito de un caso./ Acta Otorrinolaring. Esp./ 41(6):423-425/ 1990.

Althaus CW. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. Mobile phones are not lightning strike risk. BMJ. 2006 Jul 8;333(7558):96.

Alyan O, Ozdemir O, Tufekcioglu O, Geyik B, Aras D, Demirkan D. Myocardial injury due to lightning strike–a case report. Angiology. 2006 Mar-Apr;57(2):219-23.

Amy, B.W., McManus, W., Boodwin, C.W., and Pruitt, B.A./ Lightning Injury with Survival in Five Patients/ JAMA/ 253(2):243/ 1985.

Anderson, R B, Jandrell, I R, Nematswerani, H E/ The upward streamer mechanism versus step potentials as a cause of injuries from close lightning discharges/ Trans SA Inst Elec Eng/ March 2002/ pp33-43/ 2002.

Anderson, R B, Does a Fifth Mechanism Exist to Explain Lightning Injuries/ IEEE Eng Med Biol/ Jan Feb/ p105 et seq/ 2001.

‘ Andreitsev AN, et al. [A case of group atmospheric electric injuries].Klin Med (Mosk). 1990 May;68(5):131 2. Russian.

Andrews, C.J./ Studies in Aspects of Lightning Injuries/ PhD thesis/ Univ Qld/ Australia/ 1993.

Andrews, C.J./ An Update on Lightning Injuries/ Aust Anaesth, ANZCA/ Melbourne/ Australia/ 1994.

Andrews, C.J., and Colquhoun, D., and Darveniza, M./ The QT interval in lightning injury with implications for the `Cessation of Metabolism’ hypothesis/ J. Wildern. Med/ 4:155-166/ 1993.

Andrews, C.J., Darveniza, M./ Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury An Australian Survey/ J.Trauma/ 29(5):665 71/ Will. Wilk/ 1989.

Andrews C/ Structural changes after lightning strike, with special emphasis on special sense orifices as portals of entry./ Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 296 303.

Andrews, C.J., Telephone Related Lightning Injury, Med. J. Aust., 157(11/12):823-5, 1992.

Andrews,C.J.,Darveniza,M., and Mackerras,D., The Medical Effects of Lightning Strikes, Proc Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Pub. by NOAA Nat Sev Storms Lab, Oklahoma, April 1988.

Andrews, C.J.,Darveniza, M.,Mackerras, D., Lightning Injury A Review of Clinical Aspects, Pathophysiology and Treatment, Advances in Trauma, 4:241-287, YBMP, Ill. USA, 1989.

Andrews, C.J., Chapter 17. Electric Shock, Electrocution, and Lightning Strike, in Pearn, J., et al., eds., The Science of First Aid: Theory in Practice of the Art and Science of pre hospital emergency care, St John Ambulance, Australia, 1995, in press.

Andrews, C.J., Keraunomedicine – A Discipline Come of Age, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Dallas, 25(4):543-545, 1995.

Andrews, C.J., Lightning and Electrical Injuries, Ch 8.5.7 in Oxford Textbook of Medicine, Oxf, UK, 2001 and 2006/7.

Andrews, C.J., Cooper, M.A., and ten Duis, H.J., Lightning and Electrical Injuries – Medical and Legal Considerations, Chapter 23a in Wecht, C., Forensic Science, Bender, USA, 1995, and 2000.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Updated Electrical Models of the Body Subject to Electrical Insult in Lightning Strike, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

Andrews, C.J., Darveniza,M., Further Identification and Treatment Modalities in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, Proc. 4th Int Conf Lightn Stat Elec., publ. NASA, Cocoa Beach Florida, 1991.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., New Models of the Electrical Insult in Lightning Strike, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-859.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Further Study of the Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Special Emphasis on Special Sense Orifices as Portals of Entry, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-860.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Functional and Structural Changes after Lightning Strike with Emphasis on Possible Portals of Entry, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Determination of the Acoustic Insult in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, Proc. APERI Conf. on Lightning and Mountains, Chamonix-Mont Blanc, APERI, Paris France, 1994.

Andrews, C.J., and Darveniza, M., Determination of the Acoustic Insult in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-861.

Andrews,C.J., Darveniza, M., Categorisation of Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury Syndromes, Proc. 2nd Int Conf Emerg Med, SAEM, Brisbane Oct 1988.

Andrews,C.J., Cooper,M.A., Darveniza,M., and Mackerras,D., Lightning Injury: Electrical Medical and Legal Aspects, CRC Press, Florida, 197pp, 1992.

Andrews,C.J., and Darveniza,M., Effects of Lightning on Mammalian Tissue, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Bath Sept 89, Publ ERA Technol., Leatherhead, Surrey, UK.

Andrews,C.J., Darveniza,M., Mackerras,D.,A Retrospective Study of the Injuries Sustained in Telephone Mediated Lightning Strike., Proc Int. Conf. Lightn. Stat. Elec., Pub by NOAA Nat Sev Storms Lab, Oklahoma, April 1988.

Andrews,C.J., and Colquhoun,D., Prolongation of the QT Interval in Lightning Injury with Implications for the `Cessation of Metabolism’ Hypothesis, 4th Int. Conf Lightn. Stat. Elec., Proc. Publ. NASA, Cocoa Beach Florida, 1991.

Andrews, C J, Ishikawa, T, et al, International Safety and Rescue Guide Against Lightning, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

Anon., Lightning and Boats, Mich Sea Grant College Prog., pamphlet 8pp, funded by NOAA, Dept Commerce State of Michigan.

Anon., Lightning, Br Med J., p181, 26 Oct 1974.

Anon., Lightning Injuries Assessment and Prevention, Postg. Med., 83(8), 108-12, 1988.

Anon., Telephonists and Thunderstorms, Aust. Min. Std., p257, 28 Sept 1899, Univ Qld Microfiche 6473.

Anon., Like Lightning, Electr. World & Wire. World, (1708):190-5, Mar 1995.

Anon., Death by Lightning, Lancet, p230, 29 Jan 1979.

Anttonen O. Palomaki P., Salama ja sydan., Duodecim. 105(13 14):1266 8, 1989.

Apfelberg, D.B., Masters, F.W., and Robinson, D.W., Pathophysiology of Treatment of Lightning Injuries, J. Trauma, 14(6): 453, 1974.

Appel, von G., Todesfalle bei Schweinen durch Blitzschlag im Stall, Dtsch tierartz Wschr., 98:187-90, 1991.

Arboix, A., Massons, J., Oliveras, M., Titus, y F., Mielopatia secundaria a un traumatismo electrico por rayo, Medicina Clinica, 99(3):117-8, 1992.

Arden, G.P., Harrison, S.H., Lister, J., and Maudsley, R.H., Lightning Accident at Ascot, B.M.J., 1:1453, 1956.

& Arweiler DJ; Schrader M, [Lightening strike injuries of the ear], HNO. 1995 Aug; 43(8): 502 5

Ashby, H.T., Loss of Hair due to Lightning, Br. Med. J., 1:307, 1919.

Aslan S, Aydinli B, Ocak T, Akcay M. Lightning: an unusual etiology of gastrointestinal perforation. Burns. 2005 Mar;31(2):237-9.

Aslan S, Yilmaz S, Karcioglu O. Lightning: an unusual cause of cerebellar infarction. Emerg Med J. 2004 Nov;21(6):750-1.

Aslar AK, Soran A, Yildiz Y, Isik Y. Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment of lightning injuries in a Turkish burns units. Int J Clin Pract. 2001 Oct;55(8):502 4.

Auer, J., Images in Cardiology. Cardiac Involvement in Lightning Strike Injury. Clin Cardiol., 23(5):386, 2000.

Auerbach, P., Lightning Stroke, Top.Emerg.Med., 2:129, 1980.

Augustin AJ, Koch F, Boker T. Macular damage following lightning strikes. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1995 Jul;4(4):214 6.

& Bagger JP [Lightning (and electric) injuries].Ugeskr Laeger. 1997 May 19;159(21):3192. Danish.

Bailey DM, Bartsch P, Cooper MA. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic evidence of increased free radical generation and selective damage to skeletal muscle following lightning injury. High Alt Med Biol. 2003 Fall;4(3):281-9.

Bains N, et al Before lightning strikes.CMAJ. 1998 Jul 28;159(2):163.

Baker, R., Paraplegia as a Result of Lightning Injury, B.M.J, 2: 1464, 1978.

Baptiste, O., Girer, A., Foray, J., Marsigny, B., Les Accidents de Fulguration en Haute montagne, A propos de 29 cas, Chir., 116(1):60-4, 1990.

& Baranova Mia., Mnozhestvennye povrezhdeniia pri porazhenii molniei, Sudebno Meditsinskaia Ekspertiza. 18(1):45 6, 1975 Jan Mar.

Barlow, A.M., ‘Broken Backs’ in koi carp following lightning strike, Vet. Rec., 133:503, 1993.

Bartholome, C.W., Jacoby, D., and Ramchand, S., Cutaneous Manifestations of Lightning Injury, Arch. Dermatol, 111:1466 8, 1975.

Bedenice D, Hoffman AM, Parrott B, McDonnel J. Vestibular signs associated with suspected lightning strike in two horses. Vet Rec. 2001 Oct 27;149(17):519 22.

& Begoian AG. [Rare case of death from lightning].Sud Med Ekspert. 1983 Jul Sep;26(3):54 5. Russian.

Bellucci, R.J., Traumatic Injuries of the Middle Ear, Otolar. Clin. N. Am., 16(3):633, 1983.

Belsole, R.J., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: ‘gate’ closed by lightning, J. Hand Surg., 15(3):523, 1990.

Bennett, B., Lightning Saety, The First Aider, Cramer Sports Med Solns,, Spring 2000.

Bennett,B., Lightning Safety Group Recommendations, Am Meteorol Soc, Proc Conf Phoenix AZ, 1998

‘ Bereznyi VI. [2 cases of auditory analyzer damage by a lightning discharge during a thunderstorm].Zh Ushn Nos Gorl Bolezn. 1971 Nov Dec;31(6):98. Russian.

& Bereznyi VI., Povrezhdeniia organa zreniia vozdeistvii razriada molini., Vestnik Oftalmologii. 1:88 9, 1973.

Berger, K., et al., Uber die Wahrscheinlichkeit und den Mechanismus des Todes bei Bitzeinwirkungen, Bull des SEV/VSE, 69(8):361, 1978.

Bergstrom, L., Neblett, L.M., Sando, I., Hemenway, W.G., and Harrison, G.E., The Lightning Damaged Ear, Arch. Otolaryngol., 100:117, 1974.

Bergstrom, L., Some Pathologies of Sensory and Neural Hearing Loss, Can.J. Otolaryngol., 4(2) Supp 2, 1975.

Bernstein, T., Effects of Electricity and Lightning on Man and Animals, J.For.Sci., 18(1), 1973.

Bernstein, T., Lightning and Power Surge Damage to Appliances, IEEE Trans Ind. Appl., 1A20(6):1507-1512, 1984.

Bernstein, T., Protecting the Royal Navy from Lightning – William Snow Harris and His Struggle with the British Admiralty for Fixed Lightning Conductors, IEEE Trans. Educ., E21(1):7-14, 1978

Bernstein, T., Lightning Deaths and Injury in the United States 1968-81, unpublished data, 1982.

‘ Betkowski A. Cyran Rymarz A. Kuzniar W., Przypadek oparzenia ucha piorunem., Wiadomosci Lekarskie. 34(16):1401 4, 1981 Aug 15.

Biro, Z., Pamer, Z., Electrical cataract and optic neuropathy, International Ophthalmology, 18(1):43-7, 1994.

Bier M, Chen W, Bodnar E, Lee RC. Biophysical injury mechanisms associated with lightning injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):53-62.

Blackwell JG.Lightning incriminated in the sudden death of 18 steers.Vet Med Small Anim Clin. 1976 Oct;71(10):1375 7.

Blake Pritchard, E.A., Changes in the Central Nervous System Due to Electrocution, Lancet, 1:1163, 1934.

Blanco Pampin JM, et al. An unusual case of death by lighting.J Forensic Sci. 1997 Sep;42(5):942 4.

Blount, B.W., Lightning Injuries, AFP, 42(2):405-15, 1990.

Blumenthal, R., When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors, S Afr Med J., 96(1):38-9, Jan 2006.

* Boeve MH, Huijben R, Grinwis G, Djajadiningrat-Laanen SC. Visual impairment after suspected lightning strike in a herd of Holstein-Friesian cattle. Vet Rec. 2004 Mar 27;154(13):402-4.

Bondarenko, E., and Clark, R., Electrical Stress on the Rural Cable Network, Telecom Aust. Res. Lab Rpt 7846, Clayton Vic, 1987.

Bouchard O, Derradji M, Queyrel V, Morand P, Buisson M, Bosseray A, Quirin N, Gavazzi G, Leclercq P, Micoud M. [A flash of lightning that makes one anuric] Rev Med Interne. 1999;20 Suppl 2:294s 296s. French.

Bouqueneau, C, Normalisation Internationale, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

Bourke, D., Harrison, C., Sprung, J., Direction of a lightning strike [letter; comment], Comment on: Zehender, N Engl J Med 1994 May 26;330(21):1492, New England Journal of Medicine. 331(14):953-4, 1994.

Brigham PA, Lightning injuries revisited [letter], Ann Emerg Med. 1995 Oct; 26(4): 528 9

Britt RC, Gannon T, Collins JN, Cole FJ, Weireter LJ, Britt LD. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: risk factors and outcomes. Am Surg. 2005 Nov;71(11):982-5.

Brody, F., Lightning – It can strike you in a flash, Saf Tot Hlth Newsl, 5(7):1, 2000.

Browne, B.J., and Gaasch, W.R., Electrical Injuries and Lightning, Emerg Med Clin N Am, 10(2):211-29, 1992.

Brunner D, Staehelin J, Jeker D. Large scale nitrogen oxide plumes in the tropopause region and implications for ozone Science. 1998 Nov 13;282(5392):1305 9.

& Brunner FX., Beidseitige Trommelfellperforation durch Blitzschlagunfall., HNO. 32(10):429 30, 1984 Oct.

Buck, E., Mbane. African Lightning, Nurs. RSA Verpl., 5(1):17-8,1990.

Buechner, H.A., and Rothbaum, J.C., Lightning Stroke Injury A Report of Multiple Casualties from a Single Lightning Bolt, Milit.Med., 126:775, 1961.

Buettner H, Lightning induced ocular injury [letter; comment], Arch Ophthalmol. 1996 Apr; 114(4): 501 2

Bullock, J., Was Saint Paul struck blind and converted by lightning?, Survey of Ophthalmology. 39(2):151-60, 1994.

Bullock, J., The Blindness of St Paul, Ophth AAOO, 85:1044-1053, 1978.

Bunnige M. [2 rare cases of resuscitation] Zentralbl Chir. 2001 Mar;126(3):249. German.

Burda, C.A., Electrocardiographic Changes in Lightning Stroke, Am.Heart.J., 72:521, 1966.

Butler, E.D., and Grant, T.D., Electrical Injuries, with Special Reference to the Upper Extremities, Am. J. Surg., 134:95 101, 1977.

Cabane J.[Multisystemic consequences of lightning strikes in humans].Rev Med Interne. 1998;19 Suppl 2:239s 242s. French.

Campbell Hewson G, et al. Diagnosing death. Death after electric shock and lightning strike is more clear cut than suggested.BMJ. 1997 Feb 8;314(7078):442 3.

Campo, R.V., and Lewis, R.S., Lightning Induced Macular Hole, Am.J. Oph., 97(6): 792, 1984.

Cankaya H, Egeli E, Evliyaoglu Z. Hearing loss caused by lightning strike: case report and review of the literature. J Otolaryngol. 2002 Jun;31(3):181 3.

Cannel, H., Struck by Lightning The Effects upon the Men and Ships of HM Navy, J. Roy. Nav. Med. Serv., 65:165 170, 1979.

Carleton SC. Cardiac problems associated with electrical injury. Cardiol Clin. 1995 May;13(2):263 6.

Carrera-Izquierdo E, Moran-Sanchez JC, Carrera-Izquierdo M, Jimenez-Corral C, Rodriguez-Recio FJ, Ocastegui-Candial JL., [Intracranial haemorrhage secondary to a lightning strike: a case report] Revista de Neurol. 2004 Sep 16-30;39(6):530-2.

Carte AE, Anderson RB, Cooper MA. A large group of children struck by lightning. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Jun;39(6):665 70.

Castle, W., and Kreft, J., A Survey of Deaths in Rhodesia Caused By Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 20(5):93-5, 1974.

Cazabon S, Dabbs TR. Lightning induced cataract. Eye. 2000 Dec;14(Pt 6):903 4.

Celikoz B, Isik S, Turegun M, Selmanpakoglu N. An unusual case of lightning strike: full thickness burns of the cranial bones. Burns. 1996 Aug;22(5):417 9.

Chan, Y., and Sivasamboo, R., Lightning Accidents in Pregnancy, J.O.G. Br. Comm., 79:761 1, 1972.

Chandran, M., Lightning Hazards to Human Beings, Proc Nat Sem Lghtn Haz to Men and Env., Reg Eng Coll, Calcutta, 1997.

Chao, T.C., et al., A Study of Lightning Deaths in Singapore, Singapore Med.J., 22(3): 150 157, 1981.

Charlton, R., Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 313:956-7, 19 Oct 1996.

Charlton, R., Author=s Reply to Correspondence on Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 314:443, 1997.

Cheng,T.O.,Lightning Injury Causing Prolongation of the QT Interval, Postgrad. Med. J., 64:335,1988.

Cherington M, Yarnell PR, Lane J, Anderson L, Lines G. Lightning induced injury on an airplane: coronal discharge and ball lightning. J Trauma. 2002 Mar;52(3):579 81.

Cherington M. Hazards of bicycling: from handlebars to lightning. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(2):247 53.

Cherington M, Kurtzman R, Krider EP, Yarnell PR. Mountain medical mystery. Unwitnessed death of a healthy young man, caused by lightning. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2001 Sep;22(3):296 8.

Cherington M. Lightning injuries in sports: situations to avoid. Sports Med. 2001;31(4):301 8.

Cherington, M., Lightning Injuries, Ann Emerg Med, 25:516-9, 1995.

Cherington, M, Lightning Injuries in Sports, Sports Med, 31(4):301-8, 2001.

Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Lammereste, D., Lightning Strikes: Nature of Neurological Damage in Patients Evaluated in Hospital Emergancy Departments, Ann Emerg Med, 21(5):575-8, 1992.

Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., and Hallmark, D., MRI in Lightning Encephalopathy, Neurology, 43(7):1437-8, 1993.

Cherington M, Lightning and transportation., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 362 6.

Cherington M, Central nervous system complications of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 233 40.

Cherington M; Yarnell PR; London SF, Neurologic complications of lightning injuries., West J Med. 1995 May; 162(5): 413 7

Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Todd, H., Lightning injury and glioma, Injury, 25(10):687-8, 1994.

Cherington M, et al A bolt from the blue: lightning strike to the head. Neurology. 1997 Mar;48(3):683 6. (see correspondence, Sweeney, P, Neurology, 50, March 1998, p830)

Cherington, M., and Vervalin, C., Lightning Injuries – Who is at Greatest Risk?, Phys Sports Med, 18(8):59-61, 1990.

Cherington, M., Martorano, F., Siebuhr L., Stieg R., Yarnell, P., Childhood lightning injuries on the playing field. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1):39-41, 1994.

Cherington M More on MRI of lightning injury.J Okla State Med Assoc. 1997 Feb;90(2):74.

Cherington M; Mathys K, Deaths and injuries as a result of lightning strikes to aircraft., Aviat Space Environ Med. 1995 Jul; 66(7): 687 9

Cherington, M., Yarnell, P., Cherington, C., Lightning, Leyden jar, and the historic beginnings of electrophysiology, Muscle & Nerve, 17(8):951-2, 1994.

Cherington M, et al Could lightning injury be magnetically induced?Lancet. 1998 Jun 13;351(9118):1788.

Cherington M; Yarnell PR; London SF, Neurologic complications of lightning injuries., West J Med. 1995 May; 162(5): 413 7

Cherington, M., Breed, D., Yarnell, P., Smith, W., Lightning Injuries during snowy conditions, Br J Sports Med, 32(4):333-5, 1998.

Cherington M. James Parkinson: links to Charcot, Lichtenbergh, and lightning. Arch Neurol. 2004 Jun;61(6):977.

Cherington, M., Sherlock Holmes: Neurologist?, Neurol., 37:824-5, 1987.

Cherington, M., Neurological Manifestations of Lightning Strikes, Neurology, 60(2):185, 2003.

Cherington M. Spectrum of neurologic complications of lightning injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):3-8.

Cherington M. Neurorehabilitation of the multifaceted and complicated neurologic problems associated with lightning and electrical injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):1-2.

Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Re: ball lightning injuries. Ann Plast Surg. 2003 Nov;51(5):525; author reply 525-6.

Cherington M, Yarnell PR. Ball lightning encephalopathy. J Burn Care Rehabil. 2003 May-Jun;24(3):175.

Cherington M, Olson S, Yarnell PR. Lightning and Lichtenberg figures. Injury. 2003 May;34(5):367-71.

Cherington M More on MRI of lightning injury.J Okla State Med Assoc. 1997 Feb;90(2):74.

Chia, B.L., Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Congestive Cardiac Failure due to Lightning Stroke, Cardiol., 68:49 53, 1981.

Christensen, J.A., Sherman, R.T., Balis, G.A., and Waumett, J.D., Delayed Neurological Injury Secondary to high voltage Current, with Recovery, J. Trauma, 20(2):166 8, 1980.

* Clark RO, Brigham JK. Death from lightning. 1872 [classical article Wilderness Environ Med. 2002 Summer;13(2):161 2; discussion 158 60. No abstract available.

Clore, E.R., and House, M.A., Prevention and Treatment of Lightning Injuries, Nurs. Pract., 12(12):37 45, 1987.

Coates, L, Blong, R, Siciliano, Lightning Fatalities in Australia, 1824-1991, Nat Haz, 8:217-33, 1993.

Cohen JA, Autonomic nervous system disorders and reflex sympathetic dystrophy in lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 387 90.

Cohen MA. Clinical pearls: struck by lightning. Cutaneous manifestation of lightning strike (“splash”). Acad Emerg Med. 2001 Sep;8(9):893, 929 31.

Cohen, R, United States Practices to protect People and Equipment Against Lightning, Proc In Conf At Elec, Osaka, Japan, 1996.

Coleman, T., Death by Lightning, Gen.Pract., 37:81, 1968, quoted in Bergstrom (1974).

Connole, J.V., Lightning and Electric Cataract, Pa. Med. J., 38:939-42, 1935.

Conrad, L., Clinical Update on Lightning Injuries, J Wild Env Med., 9:217-22, 1998.

& Contreras Martinez D., Despolarizocion miocardica producida por el rayo. Presentacion de un caso clinico., Archivos del Instituto de Cardiologia de Mexico. 41(2):220 6, 1971 Mar Apr.

Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Prognostic Signs for Death, Ann. Emerg. Med., 9:134, 1980.

Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries, Em.Med.Clin.N.Am., 1(3):639, 1983a.

Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries: Don’t be Confused, J Int Care Med, 3(6):287-9, 1988.

Cooper, M.A., Lightning Injuries, Chapter 18, pp. 500 521, in Auerbach, P., et al., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, McMillan, N.Y., 1983.

Cooper, M.A., Lightning Strikes, Ann. Emerg. Med., 12:113, 1983.

Cooper MA, Marshburn S. Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Survivors, International. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):43-7.

Cooper, M.A., Andrews, C.J., and ten Duis, H.J., Psychological Aspects of Lightning Injury, in Borisenkov, E., Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Atmosph. Elec., June 15-19, 1992, A.I. Voeikov Main Geoplys Observ., St. Petersburg, pIII-858.

Cooper MA, Emergent care of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 268 78.

Cooper MA, Myths, miracles, and mirages., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 358 61.

Cooper, M.A., and Andrews, C.J., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, in Auerbach, P., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, 3rd edn., C.V. Mosby, USA, 1995.

Cooper, M.A., and Andrews, C.J., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, in Auerbach, P., Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies, 4th edn., C.V. Mosby, USA, 2000.

Cooper, M.A., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, Em.Med.Clin.N.Am., 2(3):489, 1984.

Cooper, M.A., Chronic Pain Syndrome in a Lightning Victim, Proc. ICOLSE, Williamsburg, Va., Sept, 1995.

Cooper, M.A., Andrews, C.J., Lightning Injuries, Disease-a-Month, Dec 1997, 871-892.

Cooper, M.A., Holle, R., Lopez, R., Recommendations for Lightning Safety, JAMA, 282(12):1132-3, 1999.

Cooper, M A, A Fifth Mechanism of Lightning Injury, Proc ICLD, Tucson Az, 2001.

Cooper MA. A fifth mechanism of lightning injury. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Feb;9(2):172 4.

Cooper MA, Holle R, Lopez R. Recommendations for lightning safety. JAMA. 1999 Sep 22 29;282(12):1132 3.

Cooper, M. A., and Andrews, C.J., Disability, not Death, is the Issue in Lightning Injury, Proc ICOLSE, Seattle, WA, Boeing, 2005.

* Coubrough V, Warnell P. The neurological complications of electrical injury: a nursing case management perspective. Axone. 2002 Jun;23(4):14 22.

Courtman SP, Wilson PM, Mok Q. Case report of a 13-year-old struck by lightning. Paediatr Anaesth. 2003 Jan;13(1):76-9.

Cox, R.A.F., Lightning and Electrical Injury, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 85:591-2, 1992.

Craig, S.R. When lightning strikes. Pathophysiology and treatment of lightning injuries, Postgrad Med 79(4):109 12, 121 4, 1986.

Crawford, A.S., and Hoopes, B.F., The Surgical Aspects of Lightning Stroke, Surgery, 9:80, 1941.

Critchley, , M., Injuries from electricity and Lightning, Br. Med. J., Dec. 21, 1935, p217 8.

Critchley, M., The Effects of Lightning with Especial Reference to the Nervous System, Bristol Med.Chir.J., 49:285, 1932.

Critchley, M., Neurological Effects of Lightning and of Electricity, Lancet, 1:68, 1934.

Cudennec, Y., de Rotalier, P., Aubert, C., et al., Fulguration D’Orielle, Ann. Oto-Laryng., 103:343-9, 1986.

Curran, B., Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damage Reports in the United States, 1959-1994, NOAA Tech Memor. NWS SR-193.

Currens, J.H., Arterial Spasm and Transient Paralysis from Lightning Striking an Aeroplane, Aerospace Med., Fmly Aviation Med., 16:275, 1945.

Cwinn, A.A., and Cantrill, S.V., Lightning injuries, J Emerg Med :2(5): 379 88, 1985.

Dalziel, C.F., A Study of the Hazards of Impulse Currents, AIEE Trans Pwr App. Systs. Part III, Oct:1032-1043, 1953.

Dalziel, C.F., and Lee, W.R., Reevaluation of Lethal Electric Currents,, IEEE Trans. Indust. Gen. Applic, IGA4:467-476, 1968.

Darling, Pedlow and Frier, Lightning Stroke, Brit. Med. J., Dec. 9, 1905, pp. 1522 3.

Darveniza,M., Andrews,C.J., Mercer,D., and Parnell,T.M., A Multipulse Impulse Generator,Proc IEEE Conf. PAS, New Orleans, publ IEEE New York, 1991.

* Datta H, Sarkar K, Chatterjee PR, Datta S, Mukherjee U. An unusual case of late ocular changes after lightning injury. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2002 Sep;50(3):224 5.

Davidson, G., and Deck, J., Delayed Myelopathy following Lightning Strike: a demyelinating process, Acta Neuropath, 77:104-8, 1988.

Day MW. Lightning strike. Nursing. 2003 Jun;33(6):104.

Delaney JS, Drummond R. Mass casualties and triage at a sporting event. Br J Sports Med. 2002 Apr;36(2):85 8; discussion 88.

‘ Denisova VI., Sluchai dvustoronnei katarakty v rezul’tate porazheniia molniei., Oftalmologicheskii Zhurnal. 33(7):555 6, 1978.

Dessertenne,F., La Tachycardie Ventriculaire a Deux Foyers Oppose Variables, Arch. des Mal. du Coeur, 59(2): 263 72, 1966

Dias, G., da Silva, L., Blauth, H. et al., Lightning Protection of Outdoor Events, VII Int Symp Lightn Prot, Curitaba Brazil, Proc: 177-8, 2003.

Dill, A.V., Notes on a case of death by lightning, BMJ, Oct 10 1942, p426.

Dinakaran, S.,et al., Telephone Mediated Lightning Injury Causing Cataract, Injury, 29(8):645-6, 1998.

Dinakaran S, Desai SP, Elsom DM. Lightning induced cataract. Eye. 2001 Oct;15(Pt 5):690.

Dinakaran S, Desai SP, Elsom DM. Ophthalmic manifestations of lightning strikes. Surv Ophthalmol. 2002 May Jun;47(3):292; discussion 292 3.

Divakov, G.M., ECG Changes in Persons Struck by Lightning (title trans from Russian), Klin. Meditsima (Mosc.), 1966, 95.

Dixon, G., The evaluation and management of electrical injuries, Crit. Care Med., 11(5):384-7, 1983.

Dmitriev, M., Bakhtin, B., Martynov, V., Thermal Effects of Ball Lightning, Zh Tekh Fiz., 51:2567-2572, 1981.

Dollinger, S., O’Donnell, J.P., and Staley, A.A., Lightning Strike Disaster : Effects on children’s Fears and Worries, J. Cons. Clin, Psych., 52(6):1028 1038, 1984.

Dollinger, S., and Cramer, P., Children’s Defensive Responses and Emotional Upset Following a Disaster: A Projective Assessment, J. Pers. Assess., 54(1,2):116-27, 1990.

Domart Y, Garet E. Images in clinical medicine. Lichtenberg figures due to a lightning strike. N Engl J Med. 2000 Nov 23;343(21):1536.

Dowling, J., Byrne, K., Barry, O.C.C., Long, J.P., and Lennon, F., Lightning Injury, Ir.Med.J., 77(8):250, 1984.

Draper, P.A., Neuropsychiatric Effects of Electric Trauma, Col. Med., Sept. ’37, 650 3.

& Drechsler B., Akustisk trommehinderuptur ved lynnedslag., Ugeskrift for Laeger. 143(24):1535, 1981 Jun 8.

Duff K, McCaffrey RJ. Electrical injury and lightning injury: a review of their mechanisms and neuropsychological, psychiatric, and neurological sequelae. Neuropsychol Rev. 2001 Jun;11(2):101 16.

Durand Manterola HJ, Mendoza B, Diaz Sandoval R. Electric currents induced inside biological cells by geomagnetic and atmospheric phenomena. Adv Space Res. 2001;28(4):679 84.

du Pasquier,G., and Freeman,J., Le foudroiement, Ann. Fr. Anesth. Reanim., 5:601 4,1986.

Duclos, P., Sanderson, L., Klontz, K., Lightning Related Mortality and Morbidity in Florida, Pub. Hlth. Rep., 105(3):276-282, 1990.

Duclos, P., and Sanderson, L., An Epidemiological Description of Lightning Related Deaths in the United States, Int J Epidem, 19(3):673-9, 1990.
*Duff K, McCaffrey RJ. Electrical injury and lightning injury: a review of their mechanisms and neuropsychological, psychiatric, and neurological sequelae. Neuropsychol Rev. 2001 Jun;11(2):101-16.

Dunscombe Honnibal, O., Accidents and Injuries Caused by Lightning, Br. Med. J., May 12, 1900, 153 5.

Dwyer JR. A bolt out of the blue. Sci Am. 2005 May;292(5):64-71.

‘ Dzhuraev KhA. [Severe lightning injury].Klin Khir. 1984 Mar;(3):50 1. Russian.

Eaton, R.D.P., Lightning Injury, Can. Med. Assoc. J., 128(8):893 4, 1983.

Eber,B., Himmel,G., Schubert,B., et al., Myokardiale Schaedigung nach Blitzschlag, Z. Kardiol., 78:402 4, 1989.

* Edlich RF, Farinholt HM, Winters KL, Britt LD, Long WB 3rd. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2005;15(2):185-96.

Edwards, W., Injury Due to Lightning Striking a Wireless Aerial, Brit. Med. J., Aug. 25, 1925, p. 294.

Ehsan, M., Waxman, J., and Finley, J.M., Delayed Gangrene After Lightning Strike, AFP, 24:117 9, 1981.

Ekoe, J.M., Cunningham, M., Jacques, O., et al., Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation and Acute Myocardial Necrosis caused by Lightning, Int.Care.Med., 11:160, 1985.

Elsom, D., Deaths Caused by Lightning in England and Wales, 1852-1990, Weather, 48:83-90, 1993.

Elwell, E.G., Non Fatal Lightning Burns, Br. Med. J., Oct. 27, 1934, p. 771.

Eng, L., and Sinnadurai, C., Syndrome of Erythemia di Guglielmo after Lightning Injury with Autoimmune Antibodies and Terminating in Acute Monocytic Leukaemia, Blood, 25(5):845, 1965.

Engelstatter, G., Psychological Effects of Lightning Strike and Electric Shock Injuries, Proc. 3rd. Ann Conf. Light. Str. And Elec. Shock Victims Assn., Author: Car. Psych Hlth Serv., Jacksonville, NC., May 1993.

English, T., Death of the Brain Stem Means Death of the Individual, BMJ, 314:443, 1997.

Epperley, E., Stewart, J., The Physical Effects of Lightning Injury, J. Fam Prac., 29(3):267-72, 1989.

Eriksson, A., Ornehult, L., Death by Lightning, Am. J. For. Med. Path., 9(4):295-300, 1988.

Espaillat, A., Janigian, R., To, K., Cataracts, Bilateral Macular Holes, and Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Induced by Lightning, Am J Ophth, 127(2):216-7, 1999.

Esprit S, Kothari P, Dhillon R. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. BMJ. 2006 Jun 24;332(7556):1513. (Multiple Responses also held)

Everett, B., Acoustic Shocks from Telephones., Proc. All States Conf. Telecom Australia, Melbourne Vic., 1981.

FAA Standard: Lightning Protection Grounding Bonding and Shielding Requirements for Facilities, FAA-STD-019b 1990.

Fahmy, F., Brinsden, M., Smith, J., Frame, J., Lightning: The Multisystem Group Injuries, J Trauma, 46(5):937-40, 1999.

Faragher RM. Injury from lightning strike while using mobile phone. Statistics and physics do not suggest a link. BMJ. 2006 Jul 8;333(7558):96.

Ferret, R., and Ojala, C., The Lightning Hazard in Michigan,.Mich Academ., XXIV:427-441, 1992.
Fish, R.M., Electric Injury, Part III, Cardiac Monitoring Indications, The Pregnant Patient, and Lightning., J Emerg Med., 18(2) 181-7, 2000.

Flannery, D.B., and Wiles, H., Followup of a Survivor of Intrauterine Lightning Exposure, Am. J. Obstet, Gynecol., 142(2):238, 1982.

Flisowski, Z., and Mazzetti, C., An Approximate Method of Assessment of the Electric Shock Hazard by Lightning Strike, 18th Int. conf. on Lightn. Protn. Munich, VDE Verlag GMbH, pp. 449 453, 1985. (paper 6.9)

Fontanarosa, P., Electric Shock and Lightning Strike, Ann Emerg Med., 22(2 Pt 2):378-87, 1993.

Fortin, M, Compte Rendu de la Table Ronde du 03/06/97, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

Foster, J D R, Norris, R L, Managing Lightning Injuries, Minn, State High School League, Bulletin, Fall 2000, 16-23.

Frauenfelder, F., and Hanna, C., Electric Cataract, I. Sequential Changes, Unusual and Prognostic Findings, Arch. Ophthalmol. 87:179, 1972.

Frayne, J., and Gilligan, B.S., Neurological Sequelae of Lightning Stroke, Clin Exp Neurol., 24:195 200, 1988.

5.3 Freeman CB, Goyal M, Bourque PR. MR imaging findings in delayed reversible myelopathy from lightning strike. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2004 May;25(5):851-3.

Fulde, G., Marsden, StJ., Lightning Strikes, Med J. Aust., 153:496-7, 1990.

Funiak,S., Hendrich,F., Drimal,J., Markuljak,I., and Funiakova, S., Srdcovy Infarkt Pri Poraneni Bleskom, Vnitrni lekarstvi, 30(11):1118 21,1984.

Gabrielli, L., Quadro Clinico Inconsueto Di Cofosi Intermittente In Soggeto Colpito Da Folgorazione, Oto-Rino-Lar. (Bologna), 31:79-90, 1962.

& Gajowa T. Misztal S., Pozne nastepstwa razenia piorunem., Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska. 17(1):97 9, 1967 Jan Feb.

5.3 Garcia Gutierrez JJ, Melendez J, Torrero JV, Obregon O, Uceda M, Gabilondo FJ. Lightning injuries in a pregnant woman: a case report and review of the literature. Burns. 2005 Dec;31(8):1045-9. Epub 2005 Apr 1.

Gary, C, Protection Contre la Foudre, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997

Gathier, J.C. Neurological Changes in a Soldier Struck by Lightning, Psych,. Neurol. Neurochirurg., 63 195 200, 1988.

Gehrke G., Psychogene Amaurose nach Blitzschlag., Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde. 148(3):430 3, 1966.

Gem, W., A Case of Lightning Stroke, followed by Recovery, Lancet, August 2, 1913.

Ghezzi, K., Lightning Injuries: A Unique Treatment Challenge, Post. Med., 85(8):197-208, 1989.

Ghosh, D., Gupta, A., Kohli., Electrical Injury: Cervical Myelopathy with Late Onset Progressive Motor Neuron Disease, Aust NZ J Med., 25:263-4, 1995.

5.3 Gibbs NF, Keel DM. Burns from out of the blue. Lightning strike. Postgrad Med. 2003 Jun;113(6):67-8, 85.

Gilbert, G., Lightning-induced robotic speech [letter; comment], Comment on: Cherington, et al., Neurology 1993 Jul;43(7):1437-8, Neurology, 44(5):991-2, 1994.

Gillespie, P. J., Ionizing Radiation and Lightning Hazards, Man Med Review, 47(4):192-3, 1967.

Girard, P., Jacquot, A., Polynevro-radiculite de type Guillain-Barre a forme acrodynique survenue dans les suites d’une fulguration, Lyon Med., 191:209-214, 1954.

Gjulev A. Simov B. Stamatov G., Uber die wirkung von Blitz und Donner auf die Gehor und Vestibularanalysatoren., Folia Medica. 14(2):79 85, 1972.

Gluncic I, Roje Z, Gluncic V, Poljak K. Ear injuries caused by lightning: report of 18 cases. J Laryngol Otol. 2001 Jan;115(1):4 8.

Goldblatt D, Lightning., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 397 400.

Goldblatt D, A Doctor’s Zeus story., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 317 9.

Golde, R.H., and Lee, W.R., Death by Lightning, Proc. IEE, 123(1OR): 1163 1180, 1976.

Goodson, M., A Discussion of ‘Deaths Caused by Lightning’, J. For Sc., 38(6):1260-1, 1993. [see Lifschutz, et al.]

Gookin, J, NOLS Backcountry Lightning Safety Guidelines, Nat Outd Lead. School, WY, USA, 2000.

Gordon, M., Silverstein, H., Willcox, T., Rosenberg, S., Lightning Injury of the Tympanic Membrane, Am J Otol, 16(3):373-6, 1995.

Gourbiere, E., Lightning Injuries to Humans in France, Proc 11th Int Conf on Atm. Elec., NASA/CP 1999 209261, Lake Guntersville, Ala., June 1999.

Gourbiere, E., Fulgura Frango, Reanimation Urgences, 9(5):319-322, 2000.

Gourbiere, E., Lightning Injuries and Death, Proc ICLD Tucson, Az, GAI, 2000.

Gourbiere, E., Electropathologie et Keraunopathologie, Biblioscopie, EDF GDF, 1997.

Graber J; Ummenhofer W; Herion H, Lightning accident with eight victims: case report and brief review of the literature., J Trauma. 1996 Feb; 40(2): 288 90

Gratz, J., Church, R., Noble, E., Lightning Safety and Outdoor Stadiums, Conference Paper in Possession, no reference available.

& Grand A. Delarbre A. Jaques F., Coeur et electrocution. A propos d’un cas d’infarctus du myocarde apres electrocution par la foudre., Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux. 64(10):1516 31, 1971 Oct.

Grand A., Complications cardiques de l’electrocution. (A propos d’un cas d’infarctus myocardique aprs electrocution par la foudre., Archives des Maladies Professionnelles de Medecine du Travail et de Securite Sociale. 33(4):177 88, 1972 Apr May.

Griffin, W., A Retrospective Stidy of Traumatic Tympanic Membrane Perforations in a Clinical Practice, The Laryngosc., 89(2 pt 2):261-82, 1979.

& Grigor’eva TIa, et al.[A case of successful resuscitation of a person struck by lightning].Feldsher Akush. 1968 May;32(5):43 4. Russian.

Grover S; Goodwin J, Lightning and electrical injuries: neuro ophthalmologic aspects., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 335 41.

Guha Ray, D.K., Fetal Death at Term due to Lightning, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 134 (1):103 5, 1979.

——- Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiac care. Emergency Cardiac Care Committee and Subcommittees, American Heart Association. Part IV. Special resuscitation situations [see comments], JAMA. 1992 Oct 28; 268(16): 2242 50

* Gupta A. Lichtenberg figures. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Nov;49:1131.

Gupta,G.B., Gupta,S.R., Somani,P.N., and Agrawal,B.V., Atrial Fibrillation with Inferior Wall Myocardial Ischaemia Following Lightning, J. Assoc. Phys. India, 36(5):354 5,1988.

Gusakov, A.D., and Zaiko, N.G., Lesion of the Human Middle Ear Caused by Lightning, Zhurnal Ushnykh Nosovykh Gorlovykh Bolexnei, 5:67 8, 1979. (translated)

5.3 Halldorsson A, Couch MH. Pneumomediastinum caused by a lightning strike. J Trauma. 2004 Jul;57(1):196-7.

Handa, J., Jaffe, G., Lightning maculopathy. A case report, Retina. 14(2):169-72, 1994.

Hann., von J., Symptomatische Psychose schizophrener Praegung nach Blitzschlagverletzung, Nervenarzt, 28(3):127-9, 1957.

Hanna, C., and Frauenfelder, F.T., Electric Cataracts II. Ultrastructural Lens Changes, Arch. Ophthal., 87:184 191, 1972.

Hansen, G.C., and McIlwraith, G.R., Lightning Injury: Two Case Histories and a Review of Management, B.M.J., 4:271, 1973.

Haraldsson PO. Bergstedt M., Medvetsloshet och kvarstaende tinnitus foljden av blixt i orat vid telefonering., Lakartidningen. 80(19):2024, 1983 May 11.

Harrison, S.H., Lightning Burns, Br. J. Plast. Surg. 8:154 157, 1955.

Harvey, E., Struck by Lightning, Nursing Times, Jul 11 1974, 1064-5.

Harwood, S.J., Catrou, R.G., and Cole, G.W., Creatine Phosphokinase Isoenzyme Fractions in the Serum of a Patient Struck by Lightning, Arch.Int.Med., 138:645, 1978.

Hawkes, C., and Thorpe, J., Acute Polyneuropathy due to Lightning Injury, J Neurol Neurosurg Psych, 55:388-90, 1992.

Hayashi Y; Aihara T; Takano H; Nakashima N; Nozaki S, Unilateral perihilar opacification caused by lightning., Pediatr Radiol. 1993; 23(7): 559 60

5.3 Hayashi M, Yamada H, Agatsuma T, Nomura H, Kitahara O. A case of takotsubo-shaped hypokinesis of the left ventricle caused by a lightning strike. Int Heart J. 2005 Sep;46(5):933-8.

Hegner, C.F., Lightning some of its Effects, Ann. Surg., 65(4):401 409, 1917.

Hendler, N., et al., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia, Chapter 39 in Tollison, C.D., et al., Handbook of Pain Management, Will & Wilk, 1994.

Hendler, N., Depression Caused by Chronic Pain, J Clin Psych, 45:30-36, 1984

Hendler, N., Overlooked Diagnoses in Chronic Pain: Analysis of Survivors of Electric Shock and Lightning Strike, J Occup and Env Med., 47:796-805, 2005.

Herrero F; Garcia Morato V; Salinas V; Alonso S, An unusual case of lightning injury: a melted silver necklace causing a full thickness linear burn., Burns. 1995 Jun 21(4) 308-9

Heilbronner, R.L., Rehabilitation of the Neuropsychological Sequelae Associated with Electrical Trauma, Ann N Y Ac Sc., 720:224-229, 1994.

& Heully F. De Ren G. Taillandiar M. Picard L. Meyer D. Simon G., Syndrome clinique et radiologique de “poumon de fermier” consecutif a une fulguration sur une charrette de foin., Annales de Medecine Legale, Criminologie, Police Scientifique et Toxicologie. 45(3):287 95, 1965 May Jun.

Hey D. Rieder W., Erfolgreiche Laien Reanimation nach Blitzschlag., Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift. 108(31 32):1217 8, 1983 Aug 5.

Heyneman, M., Angels of rain and lightning (the many and the one), Parabola – The magazine of myth and tradition, 20(1): 84-90, 1995.

Hiestand, D., Colice, G., Lightning Strike Injury, J Int Care Med., 3:303-14, 1988.

Hocking, B. and Andrews, C.J., Fractals and Lightning Injury, (letter), Med J. Aust, 150(7):409 10, 1989.

Holle, R, Bibliography on Safety and Demographics of Lightning Victims, Global Atmosph, Tucson, Az, 2001, personal communication.

Holle, R, Medical References to Lightning Strike Effects, (ed: A chronological Bibliography), NOAA NSSL, 1996, personal communication.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Arnold, L., Endres, J., Insured Property Damage from Lightning in Colorado Utah and Wyoming, NOAA Tech Mem ERL NSSL-104, Norman OK, 1995.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Ortiz, A., et al., Cloud-toGround Lightning Related to Deaths Injuries and Property Damage in Central Florida, Proc. 1992 ICLSE, Atlantic City, 1992, proc. publ FAA as DOT/FAA/CT-92/20.

Holle RL; Lopez RE; Howard KW; Vavrek J; Allsopp J, Safety in the presence of lightning., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 375 80.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Howard, K., Vavrek, R., and Allsop, J., Lightning Hazard Education, Earth Scientist, Fall 1995.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Vavrek, R., Howard, K., Educating Individuals about Lightning, 7th Symp. Educ., Phoenix, Arizona, 11-16 Jan 1998, Am Meteorol Soc., paper 1.10.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Vavrek, R., and Allsop, J., Newspaper Accounts of Lightning from 1891 to 1895, Earth Scientist, Summer 1997
Holle, R., Lopez, R., Curran, B., Distribution of Lightning Caused Casualties and Damages Since 1959 in the United States, 11 Conf Appl Climatology, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, paper 10.2.

Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Lightning – Impacts and Safety, Bull. World Met. Assn, 47(2):148-55, 1998.

Holle, R., Lopez, R., Arnold, L., Endres, J., Insured Lightning-Caused Property Damage in Three Western States, J. App. Meteorol., 35(8):1344-51, 1996.

Holle, R L, Lopez R E, Zimmerman, C, Updated recommendations for lightning safety – 1998, Bull Am Met Assoc, 80(10):2035-41, 1999. translated as Misa a jour 1998 recommendations pour la securitie des personnes en presence de la foudre, Energies Sante, 11(3):351-2, 2000.

Holle, R, Lopez, R, Navarro, B, US Lightning Deaths, Injuries, and Damages in the 1890s Compared to 1990s, NOAA Tech Mem, OAR NSSL-106, 2001.

Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Overview of Real Time Lightning Detectio Systems and their Meteorological Uses, NOAA Rpt ERRL NSSL-102, Oct 93.

5.3 Holstege CP. Images in emergency medicine. Lightning strike. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Apr;45(4):354, 362.

Hooshmand, H., Chronic Pain, CRC, 1993.

Howard, J.R., Effects of Lightning and Simulated Lightning on Tissues of Animals, PhD. Thesis, Iowa State University, 1966, quoted in Golde (1976).

Hunt, J.L., McManus, W.F., Haney, W.P. and Pruitt, B.A., Vascular Lesions in Acute Electric Injuries, J.Trauma, 14(6):461, 1974.

Hunt L. Ocular injuries induced by lightning. Insight. 2000 Apr Jun;25(2):59 60.

Imboden, L.E., and Newton, C.B., Myocardial Infarction following Electric Shock, US Armed Forces Med J., 3:497, 1952.

Iranyi, J., Das Blitztrauma in Neuer Sicht, Munch Med Woch, 104:1496-1500, 1964.

Irvine, J., Electric Shock and Associated Injuries, The Pract., 233:1454-7, 1989.

Ishikawa, T., Prevention Against Lighting Accidents in Japan, Nihon Univ. J. Med., 24:1 14, 1982.

Ishikawa, T., Ohashi, M., Kitigawa, N., Nagai, Y., Miyazawa, T., Experimental Study on the Lethal Threshold Value of Multiple Successive Voltage Impulses to Rabbits Simulating Multi strike Lightning Flash, Int, J. Biometeorol., 29(2):157 168, 1985.

Ishikawa, T., Miyazawa, T., Ohashi, M., Et al., Experimental studies on the Effect of Artificial Respiration After Lightning Accidents, Res. Exp. Med. (Berl), 179:59 68, 1981.

Isler C., Don’t act thunderstruck: save victims of lightning:., RN. 39(8):37 9, 1976 Aug.

Jackson, S.H.D., and Parry, D.J., Lightning and the Heart, Br. Heart. J., 43:454, 1980.

Jafari H, Couratier P, Camu W. Motor neuron disease after electric injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Aug;71(2):265 7.

Jain, S., Bandi, V., Electrical and Lightning Injuries, Crit Care Clin., 15(2):319-31, 1999.

James, T., Lightning and Electrical Injury, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 86:556, 1993

& Janisch R., Poskozeni ucha bleskem., Ceskoslovenska Otolaryngologie. 29(6):368 70, 1980 Dec.

Janus TJ; Barrash J, Neurologic and neurobehavioral effects of electric and lightning injuries., J Burn Care Rehabil. 1996 Sep Oct; 17(5): 409 15

Jelen S., Blitztrauma: Soforthilfe., MMW Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 121(25):839, 1979 Jun 22.
Jellinek, S., Death by Lightning (Letter), Brit. Med. J., Dec. 12, 1942, p714.

Jellinek,S., Electrische Verletzungen, Leipzig, 1932b, quoted in Lynch, et al., op cit.

Jellinek,S., Wien Klin Wschr., 45:37, 1932a, quoted in Lynch, et al., op cit.

Jemmi., A., Lesioni Coclo-Vestibolari Da Energia Elettrics, Otorh. Ital. Bologn., 34:232-65, 1965.

Jepsen, D., How to Manage a Patient with Lightning Injury, AJN, pp39-42, Aug 1992.

Jex Blake, A.J., Goulstonian Lectures : Death by Electric Currents and by Lightning, Brit. Med. J; pp 425 430, 492 498, 548 552, 601 603; Mar. 1, 8, 15, 22, 1913.

Johnstone, B.R., Harding, D.L., Hocking, B., Telephone Related Lightning Injury, Med. J. Aust., 144 706 709, 1986.

Jonas L, Fulda G, Nizze H, Zimmermann R, Gross G, Zack F, Kroning G, Holzhuter G, Haas HJ. Detection of gold particles in the neck skin after lightning stroke with evaporation of an ornamental chain. Ultrastruct Pathol. 2002 May Jun;26(3):153 9.

Jones, D., Ogren, F., Roh, L., Moore, G., Lightning and its Effects on the Auditory System, Laryng., 101:830-4, 1991.

Jost WH, Schonrock LM, Cherington M. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in lightning and electrical injuries. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):19-23.

Jumbelic MI, Forensic perspectives of electrical and lightning injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 342 50.

& Junkins, E P, Kunkel, N, Lightning Strike to the Head of a Helmeted Motorcyclist, Am J EM Med, 17(2)213-4,1999.

Just, T., Kramp, B., and Pau, H., Blitzschlaginduzierte Verletzungen des Ohres, HNO, 50:170-171, 2002.

Kramp B, Pau HW. [Lightening induced injury of the air. Lightening induced tympanic membrane perforation left with subsequent temporary pancochlear inner ear hearing loss as well as left sided tinnitus] HNO. 2002 Feb;50(2):170 1. German.

Kandt, R.S., Rossitch, J., Trippett, T., et al., Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring as a guide to prognosis in a lightning injured comatose child, Ch. Nerv. Syst., 4(6):370-2, 1988.

5.3 Kannan RY, Chester DL, Titley OG. Combined Bennett’s fracture subluxation and scapho-trapezio-trapezoidal dislocation secondary to lightning strike. J Trauma. 2004 Dec;57(6):1351-3.

Karger B, Suggeler O, Brinkmann B. Electrocution autopsy study with emphasis on “electrical petechiae”. Forensic Sci Int. 2002 May 23;126(3):210 3.

& Karnaukhov IuN. Dmitriev OP., Povrezhdenie miokarda pri porazhenii molniei., Voenno Meditsinskii Zhurnal. (6):65 6, 1980 Jun.

Karaboth, H., Der Blitzunfall, Verl Ger Witz., 1975, ISBN 3-87921-048-9

& Karobath H. Balogh A. Heindl H. Hofschneider H. Undt W., Untersuchungen uber Eigenschaften des Blitzschlages und seine Wirkungen, auf die Herztatigkeit der Ratte., Archiv fur Kreislaufforschung. 65(1):1 13, 1971 May Jun.

& Karobath H. Undt W. Hofschneider H., Zur Wirkung des Blitzschlages auf den Organismus mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Auswirungen auf das herz., Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Innere Medizin. 77:455 7, 1971.

Karobath H, et al. Causes of death in lightning strokes].MMW Munch Med Wochenschr. 1977 Jan 7;119(1):29 32. German.

Karaboth, H., and Mensdorff-Pouilly, H., Uber elektrokardiographische Veranderungen nac einem Blitzschlagunfall, Wein Klin Woch., 84(26):428,1972.

Karaboth, H., Redtenbacher, M., Zur Frage der Todesursache beim Blitzunfall, MMW, 119(1):29-32, 1977.

Kett, R., Acoustic Shock Absorbers, Telecom Res. Labs. Rpt 4588, Clayton Vic, 1959.

Kint PA, Stroy JP, Parizel PM. Basal ganglia hemorrhage secondary to lightning stroke. JBR BTR. 1999 Jun;82(3):113.

Kitagawa, N., Turumi, S., Ishikawa, T., and Ohashi, M., The Nature of Lightning Discahrges on Human Bodies and the Basis for Safety and Protection, Proc. 18th Int Conf Lightn. Prot., VDE Verlag GmBH, 1985.

Kitagawa, N., et al., Experimental Studies on Artificial Lightning Stroke with Dummies and Rabbits, Kagaku, 40:486-94, 1971.

Kitagawa, N., Ohashi, M., and Ishikawa, T., The Substantial Mechanisms of Step Voltage Effects, J Atm Elec., 21(2):87-94, 2001.

Kleiner, J.P. and Wilkin, J.H., Cardiac Effects of Lightning Stroke, JAMA 240:2757, 1978.

Kleinot, S., Klachki, D.M., and Keeley, K.J., The Cardiac Effects of Lightning Injury, S.Afr.Med.J., 40:1141, 1966.

Kleinschmidt DeMasters BK, Neuropathology of lightning strike injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 323 8.

Knaggs RH. Unusual injuries caused by lightning stroke. 1894 [classical article] Wilderness Environ Med. 2002 Summer;13(2):162; discussion 158 60.

‘ Kobayashi T., [Aural trauma caused by electric shock by lightning] [Japanese] , Jibiinkoka. 40(7):525 9, 1968 Jul.

Koeppen S., Personenschaden durch Blitzeinwirkung., Medizinische Klinik. 60(35):1390 3, 1965 Aug 27.

Koshima, I., Moriguchi, T., Soeda, S., Murashita, T., High Voltage Electrical Injury: Electron Microscopic Findings of Injured Vessel Nerve and Muscle, Ann Plast Surg, 26:587-91, 1991.

& Koslowski L. Hettich R., Blitzschlagverletzungen., Lebensversicherungs Medizin. 26(1):1 3, 1974 Jan.

Kotogal, S., Rawlings, C. A., Chen, S., Burris, G., and Nouri, S., Neurologic, Psychiatric and Cardiovascular Complications in Children Struck by Lightning, Paed, 70(2): 190, 1982.

Krasheminnikov, V.F., Lightning Injuries of the Ear, Zh. Ushn. Nos. Gorl. Bolez, 25:75, 1965.

Krasnov, A.K., A Contribution to Case Histories on Lightning Injuries, For.Med.Ex., 10:45, 1967, quoted in Golde (1976).

Kravitz, H., Wasserman, M.J., Valaitis, J., et al., Lightning Injury, Am. J. Dis. Child., 131:413, 1977.

Krejci K. Luther M. Beltle M. Kramann B., Wiederbelebung nach todlichem Blitzschlag., MMW Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 126(3):63 4, 1984 Jan 20.

Krider EP; Uman MA, Cloud to ground lightning: mechanisms of damage and methods of protection., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 227 32.

Kristensen, S., and Tveteras, K., Lightning Induced Acoustic Rupture of the Tympanic Membrane, J.Laryng.Otol., 99:711, 1985.

Krob, M.J., and Cram, A.E., Lightning Injuries: A Multisystem Trauma, J. Iowa. Med. Soc., 73(6): 221, 1983.

Kruse R., Aussergewohnlicher EEG Befund nach cerebralem Blitztrauma beim Kind. Ein Fall von latenter Epilepsie., Deutsche Zeitschrift fur Nervenheilkunde. 188(1):53 61, 1966 Jan 12.

Lagreze WD; Bomer TG; Aiello LP, Lightning induced ocular injury [see comments], Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Aug; 113(8): 1076 7

Lagreze WD, et al. Lightning induced ocular injury.Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Aug;113(8):1076 7.

Lammertse DP. Neurorehabilitation of spinal cord injuries following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):9-14.

Langley, R., Dunn, K., Esinhart, J., Lightning Fatalities in North Carolina 1972-88, NCMJ, 52(6):281-284.

Laskowski-Jones, L., Responding to Summer Emergencies, Nursing, 30(5):34-9, 2000.

Laskowski Jones L. Responding to summer emergencies. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2000 Jul Aug;19(4):2 8; quiz 9 11.

Lea, J.A., Paresis of Accommodation following Injury by Lightning, Brit. J. Opth., 4:417, 1920.

Lederer, W., Wiedermann, F.J., Cerchiari, E., Baubin, M.A., Electricity Associated Injuries II, Outdoor Management of Lightning-Induced Casualties, Resusc., 43(2):89-93, 2000.

*Lee MS, Gunton KB, Fischer DH, Brucker AJ. Ocular manifestations of remote lightning strike. Retina. 2002 Dec;22(6):808-10.

Lee RC, Zhang D, Hannig J. Biophysical injury mechanisms in electrical shock trauma. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2000;2:477 509.

Lee, W., Lightning Injuries and Death, in Golde, R., and Lee, W., Lightning Protection, Ac Press, N.Y., 1977.

Lehman, L., Successful Management of an Adult Lightning Victim Using Intracranial Pressure Monitoring, Neurosurg., 28(6):907-10, 1991.

& Leibovici D; Henig A; Shemer J; Shapira SC, [Electrocution and lightning strikes pathophysiology and treatment], Harefuah. 1995 Jul; 129(1 2): 62 8

Leikin JB, Aks SE, Andrews C, Auerbach PS, Cooper MA, Jacobsen TD, Krenzelok EP, Shicker L, Weiner SL. Environmental injuries. Dis Mon. 1997 Dec;43(12):809 916.

Levine JS, Augustsson TR, Anderson IC, Hoell JM Jr. Tropospheric sources of NOx: lightning and biology. Atmos Environ. 1984;18(9):1797 804.

Leveille-Nizorelle, Lintzer, J-P, Berezin, A., Consequences auriculaires d’un coup de foudre, Ann Oto-Laryng. (Paris), 95(10-11):695-702, 1978.

Lewis AM. Understanding the principles of lightning injuries.J Emerg Nurs. 1997 Dec;23(6):535 41. Review.

Lichtenberg, R., Dries, D., Ward, K., et al., Cardiovascular Effects of Lightning Stroke, J Am Coll Card., 21(2):531-6, 1993.

Lick SD, et al. Heart donation after lightning strike.J Heart Lung Transplant. 1998 Oct;17(10):1034 5.

Lifschultz, B., Donoghue, E., Deaths Caused by Lightning, J. For. Sc., 38(2):353-8, 1993.

Lim JK, Lee EH, Chhem RK. Physeal injury in a lightning strike survivor. J Pediatr Orthop. 2001 Sep Oct;21(5):608 12.

Lin CJ, Yang CH, Yang CM, Chang KP. Abnormal electroretinogram and abnormal electrooculogram after lightning induced ocular injury. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Apr;133(4):578 9.

Lopez, R., Holle, R., and Heitkamp, T., Lightning Casualties and Property Damage in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 Based on Storm Data, Weather and Forecasting, 10(1):114-126, 1995.

Lopez, R., Holle, R., and Heitkamp, T., Deaths Injuries and Property Damage Due to Lightning in Colorado from 1950 to 1991 Based on Storm Data, NOAA Tech. Mem. ERL NSSL-103, 1994.

Lopez, R., Holle, R., Heitkamp, T., et al., The Underreporting of Lightning Injuries and Deaths in Colorado, Bull. Am Met. Soc., 74(11):2171-2178, 1993.

Lopez RE; Holle RL, Demographics of lightning casualties., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 286 95.

Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Climate Related Trends in the Number of Lightning Deaths During the Twentieth Century, 11 Conf Appl Climatology, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, paper 10.3.

Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Fluctuations of Lightning Casulaties in the United States: 1959-1990, J. Climate, Mar 1996.

Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., The Distance Between Subsequent Lightning Flashes, NOAA NSSL Tech Memor. ERL NSSL-105, Norman Oklahoma, 1999.
Lopez, R., and Holle, R.L., Changes in the Number of Lightning Deaths in the United States during the Twentieth Century, J. Climate, 11:2070-7, 1998.

Lossnitzer K, et al. [Electrocardiographic early observations shortly after a lightning stroke].Z Kardiol. 1973 Jun;62(6):520 5. German.

Lutalo, S., and Pratt, G., Acute Pulmonary Oedema Caused by Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 35(11):534-7,1989.

Lynch, M., and Shorthouse, P.H., Injuries and Death from Lightning, Lancet, 1:473, 1949.

Mackerras, D., Observations of lightning caused surges in a telephone line for the period 1979-1983, Dept Res Rpt EE83/12, Univ. Qld., Dept. Elec. Eng., 1983.

Makdissi M, Brukner P. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Jul 1;177(1):35 7.

‘ Manak NA. Makovskaia LE. Laziuk DG., Ostryi nekroz miokarda pri porazhenii molniei. , Kardiologiia. 23(1):102 3, 1983 Jan.

Mann, H., Kozic, Z., and Boulos, M., CT of Lightning Injury, Am. J. Neuroradiol, 4:976,1983.

Marcus MA, et al A prolonged but successful resuscitation of a patient struck by lightning.Eur J Emerg Med. 1994 Dec;1(4):199 202

* Marcus MB. Lightning lore to live by safely. US News World Rep. 2002 Jun 17;132(21):57.

Mardel, S., Thomas, C., Diagnosing Death, BMJ, 314:442, 1997

Marcus MA, et al A prolonged but successful resuscitation of a patient struck by lightning.Eur J Emerg Med. 1994 Dec;1(4):199-202

& Marleschki V., Blitzschlag wahrend der Schwangerschaft., Zentralblatt fur Gynakologie. 87(44):1512 4, 1965 Oct 30.

Marsigny, B., Lecoq-Jammes, F., Cauchy, E., Medical Rescue in the Mont Blanc Massive, Wild Env Med., 10(3):152-6, 1999.

Martin Mardomingo MA, Perez Fernandez JL, Gonzalez Gonzalez F, Garcia Norniella B. [Lightning strike through the telephone wire] An Pediatr (Barc). 2004 Jul;61(1):85-6.

Massello, W., Lightning Death, Med Led Bull., Ch. Med. Exam, Richmond, Va., 37(1), 1988.

Matsumoto, Y., et al., Measurement of Lightning Surges on Test Transmission Line Equipped with Arrestors Struck by Natural and Triggered Lightning, IEEE/PES Summer Meeting, 1995.

Matthews MS, et al Plastic surgical considerations in lighting injuries.Ann Plast Surg. 1997 Dec;39(6):561 5. Review.

McCarthy, L.J., and Parker, C., Positive Antiglobulin Tests in a Boy Struck by Lightning, NEJM, 305(5):283.

McKrady Kahn, V.L., and Kahn, A.m., Lightning Burns, West, J. Bed., 134(3):215 9, 1981.

Merlin, A, Control of the Risk of Lightning: A challenge for tomorrow, Proc LM97, Chamonix, 1997.

Mermet, L., Villedieu-Poingnant, S., Vincent, J., Dupont, P., La Foudre: un phenomene redoute, des aspects cliniques souvent meconnus, Reanim Urgences, 9(5):367-73, 2000.

Miller SF. The long-term consequences of lightning injuries. Comment on Muehlberger T, Vogt PM, Munster AM, (Burns 2001;27:829-33). Burns. 2003 Feb;29(1):97.

Milton WJ; Hal O’Dell R; Warner EG, MRI of lightning injury: early white matter changes associated with cerebral dysfunction., J Okla State Med Assoc. 1996 Mar; 89(3):93-4.

Milward, J.M., Prolonged Gastric Dilatation as a Complication of Lightning Injury, Burns, 1(2):175 8, 1975.

Milzman, D., Moskowitz, L., Hardel, M., Lightning Strikes at a Mass Gathering, South Med J, 92(7):708-10, 1999.

Montalto M, Ancarani F, Manna R, Gasbarrini G. Globus pharyngis: was it a stroke of lightning? Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Apr;98(4):938-9.

Moollaor, P., Annoppetch, C., Lightning injury: a case report, Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 76(7):410-4, 1993.

Moon SJ, Kim JE, Han DP. Lightning-induced maculopathy. Retina. 2005 Apr-May;25(3):380-2.

Moore, M.C., Ocular Injury from Lightning Current and Lightning Flash, Trans. Oph. Soc. Aust., 16:87 92, 1956.

Mora Magana I; Collado Corona MA; Toral Martinon R; Cano A, Acoustic trauma caused by lightning., Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1996 Mar; 35(1): 59 69

Moran, K.T., Thupari, J.N., and Munster, A.M., Lightning Injury, Physics, pathophysiology and clinical features, Ir. Med. J., 79(5):120 2, 1986 a.

Moran, K.T., Thupari, J.N., and Munster, A.M., Electric and Lightning Induced cardiac arrest reversed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (letter), JAMA, 255(16):2157, 1986 b.

Morgan, Z.V., Headley, R.N., Alexander, E.A., Sawyer, C.G., Atrial Fibrillation and Epidural Haematoma associated with Lightning Stroke, New Eng. J. Med., 259(20):956 9, 1958.

Morikawa, S., and Steichen, F., Successful Resuscitation after ‘Death’ from Lightning. Anesthesiol, 21(2):222 4, 1960.

Morocutti, C., Spadaro, M., Amabile, C., TRH treatment in cerebellar ataxia following a lightning stroke, Ital. J. Neurol Sc., 10:531, 1989.

Moser, M.Y., When Lightning Strikes, Am J Nurs:86(7): 802 3, 1986.

Moulson, A.M., Blast Injury of the Lungs due to Lightning, B.M.J., 289:1270, 1984.

Mournier Kuhn, P., Clinical Study of Lesions of the Auditory Apparatus Caused by Electricity, Rev. Otoneuroophthal, 35:165, 1963.

Mousa, A., Srivastava, K., Safety against lightning for linemen working on de-energized power lines, IEEE Trans Pwr Del, PWRD-1(1):245-50, 1986.

Msonge, B., and Evans, R.L., Lightning Stroke on Ukerewe Island, East Afr. Med. J., 53(6):350 1. 1976.

Muehlberger T, Vogt PM, Munster AM. The long term consequences of lightning injuries. Burns. 2001 Dec;27(8):829 33.

& Muller E. Endler S. Wedekind UG., Neuropsychiatrische und hirnelektrische Verlaufsuntersuchungen nach Unfallen durch Blitzschlag., Psychiatrie, Neurologie und Medizinische Psychologie. 30(9):567 76, 1978 Sep.

Muto, T., Ohashi, M., Fujishiro, Y., et al., Mark of lightning on the skin – clinical observations and its experimental simulation, Keio Igaku, 49:51-9, 1972.

Myers, G.J., Colgan, M.T., and van Dyke, D.H., Lightning Disaster Among Children, JAMA, 238:1045, 1977.

Naess, C., Pillgram-Larsen, J., Personskader ved lynnedslag, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 104(15):1031-3, 1984.

Nagai,Y., Ishikawa,T., Ohashi,M., Kitigawa,N., Study of Lethal Effects of Multiple Stroke Flash Lethal Effects oh Rabbits subjected to 3 successive Voltage Impulses Simulating Multiple Stroke Flash (sic), Res. Lett. Atm. Phys., 2:87, 1982.

& Namyslowski G; Czecior E; Steszewska U; Anczykowska M, [A case of lightning resulting in ear burn], Otolaryngol Pol. 1995; 49(4): 356 8

‘ Nedlina EM., Elektrokardiograficheskoe nabliudenie pri porazhenii molniei., Kardiologiia. 8(7):139 41, 1968 Jul.

Nesbitt, S W, Zhang, R, Orville R, Seasonal and Global NOx Production by Lightning estimated from the Optical Transient Detector, Tellus 52B (5):1216-15,2000.

Nesmith, M.A., A Case of Lightning Stroke, J.Fla.Med.Assn., 58:36, 1971, quoted in Hanson (1973).

Nguyen BH, MacKay M, Bailey B, Klassen TP. Epidemiology of electrical and lightning related deaths and injuries among Canadian children and youth. Inj Prev. 2004 Apr;10(2):122-4.

Noel, L.P. Clarke, W.N., and Addison, D., Ocular Complications of Lightning, J.Paed.Opth., 17:245, 1980.

Norman, M., Younge, B.R., Association of high dose methylprednisolone with reversal of blindness from lightning in two patients, Ophth., 106(4):743-5, 1999.

Norman ME, Albertson D, Younge BR. Ophthalmic manifestations of lightning strike. Surv Ophthalmol. 2001 Jul Aug;46(1):19 24.

‘ Novitskaia VV. Novitskii Iia., Dva sluchaia porazheniia glaz molniei., Vestnik Oftalmologii. (6):71 2, 1983 Nov Dec.

Nunnelee JD. Lightning strikes. RN. 2005 May;68(5):44-6, 48-9; quiz 50.

Nute, R., Dynamic Aspects of Body Impedance, in Bridges, J.E., et al., Electrical Shock Safety Criteria, Pergamon Press, N.Y., 1985.

O’Brien CF, Involuntary movement disorders following lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 263 7.

Ogren FP; Edmunds AL, Neuro otologic findings in the lightning injured patient., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 256 62.

Ohashi,M., Kitigawa,N., and Ishikawa,T., Lightning Injury Caused by Discharges Accompanying Flashovers a Clinical and Experimental Study of Death and Survival, Burns,12(7):496 501, 1986.

* Ohashi M, Hosoda Y, Fujishiro Y, Tuyuki A, Kikuchi K, Obara H, Kitagawa N, Ishikawa T. Lightning injury as a blast injury of skull, brain, and visceral lesions: clinical and experimental evidences. Keio J Med. 2001 Dec;50(4):257 62.

Okafor UV. Lightning injuries and acute renal failure: a review. Ren Fail. 2005;27(2):129-34.

O’Keefe Gatewood M, Zane RD. Lightning injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004 May;22(2):369-403.

Oram, T., and Silverman, K., LIGHTNING – it can strike YOU in a flash, Safety Total Health, JSC, 5(7):1,2000.

Orville, R.E., et al., The North American Lightning Detection Network (NALDN) – first results 1998-2000, Mon Weath Review, 130(8),2002.

Orville, R and Huffines, G., Lightning Ground Flash Measurements over the Contiguous United States: 1995-7, Monthly Weath Rev, Am Met Soc, p2693, Nov 1999.

Ost, L.G., Behavioural Treatment of Thunder and Lightning Phobias, Behav.Res.Ther., 16:197, 1978.

Ozgun B; Castillo M, Basal ganglia hemorrhage related to lightning strike., AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995 Jun Jul; 16(6): 1370 1

Palmer, A.B.D., Lightning Injury causing prolongation of the Q T internal, Post. med. J., 63 891 4, 1987.

Paterson, J.H., et al., Lightning and the Central Nervous System, J. Roy. Arm. Med. Corps., 82:73, 1944.

Patten, B., Lightning and Electrical Injuries, Neurol Clin, 10(4):1047-58, 1992.

Peters, W.J., Lightning Injury, Can.Med.Ass.J., 128:148, 1983.

Pettinicchi TA Actionstat. Lighting strike.Nursing. 1998 Jul;28(7):33.

Pierce, M., Henderson, R., Mitchell, J., Cardiopulmonary Arrest Secondary to Lightning Injury in a Pregnant Woman, Ann. Emerg. Med., 15(5):597-9, 1986.

Pliskin, N., et al., Neuropsychological changes following electrical injury, J Int Neuropsych Soc, 12:17-23, 2006.

Plueckhahn, V., Injury and Death Caused by Lightning, (Edtl.), M.J.Aust, 144:673, 1986.

* Pollak S. [Misinterpretation of fetal high voltage and lightning accidents] Arch Kriminol. 2000 Nov Dec;206(5 6):168 79. German.

Poulsen, P., and Knudstrup, P., Lightning caused Inner Ear Damage and Intracranial Haematoma, J. Laryng, Otol., 100:1067 1070, 1986.

Prentice, S.A., Lightning Fatalities in Australia, EE Trans. I.E.Aust., EE8(2):55, 1972.

Primeau M; Engelstatter GH; Bares KK, Behavioral consequences of lightning and electrical injury., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 279 85.

Primeau, M., Engelstatter, G., Cooper, M.A., Psychological Sequelae of Lightning Injury, Proc. ICOLSE, Williamsburg, Va., Sept, 1995.

Primeau M. Neurorehabilitation of behavioral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):25-33.

& Pruszynska I., Przypadek uszkodzenia narzadu sluchu wskutek razenia piorunem., Otolaryngologia Polska. 21(2):209 12, 1967.

Qureshi NH, Indirect lightning strike via telephone wire., Injury. 1995 Nov; 26(9): 629 30

Raja, S. N., Sympathetically Maintained Pain, Curr Prac Anaesth, Mosby, 2:421-5, 1990.

* Rajan SK. Lightning injury with survival. J Assoc Physicians India. 2001 Jul;49:770.

Rakov, V, Lightning Protection of Structures and Personal Safety, Proc ICLD, Tucson, Az, 2000.

Rakov, V., Lightning Electric and Magnetic Fields, Proc EMC Zurich 1999, Paper 105P1.

Rakov, V., Lightning ElectroMagnetic Fields: Modelingh and Measurements, Proc EMC Zurich 1997, Paper 11C1.

Ramsey FK, et al. Diagnosis of lightning strike.J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1970 May 15;156(10):1472 4.

Ravitch, M.M., Lane, R., Safar, P., Steichen, F., and Knowles, P., Lightning Stroke, NEJM, 264(1): 36, 1961.

Raymond, L.F., Specific Treatment of Uveitis, Lightning Induced: An Autoimmune Disease, Ann.Allerg., 27:242, 1967.

Read, J.M. Man Struck by Lightning Reveals Marked ECG Changes Hours Later, Med. Trib., March 28, 1966, p3.

Redleaf, M., and McCabe, B., Lightning injury of the tympanic membrane, An Otol Rhinol Laryngol 102:867-9, 1993.

Rees, W.D., Pregnant Woman Struck by Lightning, Br. Med. J., 1:104 4, 1965.

Reisner, A., A case of Lightning Injury with delayed-onset psychiatric and cognitive symptoms, Brain Inj., 20(10):1093-7, 2006

Rescorl D Environmental emergencies.Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 1995 Sep;7(3):445 56. Review.

Resnik, B., Capland, L., Discrete keloids in a lightning strike, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 30(6):1039-40, 1994.

Resnik BI, Wetli CV. Lichtenberg figures. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996 Jun;17(2):99 102.

Rich, J. Lightning injury, Nursing, 16(6) : 25, 1986.

Richards, A., Traumatic Facial Palsy, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med., 66:28 29, 1973.

& Ritland S. [Brain injury following lightning stroke].Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1971 Mar 10;91(7):492 4. Norwegian.

Roberts, C., On Lightning, Cent. Afr. J. Med., 13(7):167-8, 1967

Robinson, M., and Seward, P.N., Electrical and Lightning Injuries in Children, Paed. Emerg. Care., 2(3):186 190, 1986.

Roeder, W P, et al, Lightning Safety for Schools, 10th Symp Educn, Am Met Soc, Albuquerque, New Mex, Jan, 2001.

Ross, N., Danger to Telecommunication Personnel and Equipment from Power Lines, Proc. Conf. Coo-ord of Power and Telecomm. Systems, Bris Aust July 1976, Coll. Elec Eng, IEAust.

Ross, C., Lichen Planus after Lightning Stroke, Br. J. Derm., 72(12):448, 1960.

& Royer J. Gainet F., Consequences oculaires de la fulguration. A propos d’un cas., Bulletin des Societes d Ophtalmologie de France. 12(4):491 7, 1972 Apr.

* Ruiz Ruiz FJ, Ruiz Laiglesia FJ, Lobo Escolar A, Hualde Enguita AM, Torrubia Perez CB, Calvo Begueria E. [Cardiac injury after indirect lightning strike] Rev Esp Cardiol. 2002 Jul;55(7):768 70. Spanish.

Rush, M., and Glasser, J., Lightning Risk, Rev. Eng. Health, 3(3):301 13, 1981.

Saddler, M., Thomas, J., Temporary Bulbar Palsy following Lightning Strike, Cent Afr J Med., 36(6):161-2, 1990.

Salisbury, K., Lloyd, S., Chen, Y., A transportable 50kA dual mode lightning simulator, Maxwell Labs for Boeing Adv Systems, 1990.

Sances, A., Myklebust, J., Szablya, J., et al., Current Pathways in High Voltages Injuries, IEEE Trans BME, 30(2):118 123, 1983.

& Santonja, J.M., [Electrotrauma by lightning through the telephone [letter]], Revista Neurologia, 27(160):1073, 1998.

* Sadiwnyk M. Voltage transients, their effects, and the solution. Health Estate J. 1995 Feb;49(1):3 4.

Sarma, B., Sarma, N., Epidemiology, morbidity, mortality and treatment of burn injuries–a study in a peripheral industrial hospital, Burns. 20(3):253-5, 1994.

& Schaidt G., Spuren an Kleidungsstucken beim Blitzunfall, Archiv fur Kriminologie. 159(3 4):93 6, 1977 Mar Apr.

& Schallock, G., Zol.Allg.Path.Anat., 88:245, 1952, quoted in Arden (1956).

Scheulen, J., Munster, A., The Lightning Injury, JBCR, Mar/April 1983: 101-5.

Schienle A, Stark R, Kulzer R, Klopper R, Vaitl D. Atmospheric electromagnetism: individual differences in brain electrical response to simulated sferics. Int J Psychophysiol. 1996 Feb Mar;21(2 3):177 88.

& Schienle, A., Stark, R., Vaitl, D., [EEG Canges Caused by Spherics], Fort. der Med., 117(1-2):41-2, 1999.

Schmidt, G., Versicherungsmedizin im rechtsmedizinischen Alltag, Versicherungsmedizin. 46(1):2-7, 1994.

Schmidt,W., Gruetzner,A., and Schoen,H.R., Beobachtungen bei Blitzschlagverletzungen unter Beruecksichtigung von EKG and EEG, Deutsches Arch. Klin. Med., 204:307 24, 1957.

Schneider, R., Blitzschlag als Telefonunfall, Med. Klinik, 51:2208, 1956.

Schoenback, K., Nuccitelli, R., and Beebe, S.J., Zap, IEEE Spectrum, accessed at Aug 2006.

Schonland, B., The Flight of Thunderbolts, Oxf Clarendon Pr., 1950.

Schwab, M., Wiegand, H., Bentsen, P., and Hochrein, H., Infarkt EKG nach Blitzunfall, Z Kardiol, 78:611-4, 1989.

Schwartzman, R.J., Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, Arch Neurol, 44:555-561,1987.

Schwartzman, R., and Kerrigan, J., The Movement Dosorder of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, Neurol., 40:57-61, 1990.

Schwartzman, R.J., Causalgia and Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy, in Feldmann, E., Current Diagnosis in Neurology, Mosby, 1994.

Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, Van Landuyt K, Hamdi M, Blondeel P. Rehabilitation of burn injured patients following lightning and electrical trauma, NeuroRehabilitation. 20:2005.

* Serrano ML, Gari M, Castro P, Garzo C, Maroto C, Maroto E. [Wallenberg syndrome in childhood secondary to the striking by lightening] Rev Neurol. 1995 Mar Apr;23(120):414 6. Spanish.

Shannon D. Diagnosing death from lightning.Vet Rec. 1980 Jul 12;107(2):48.

Shantha, T., Causalgia Caused by Telephone Mediated Lightning Electrical Injury and Treated by Intrapleural Block, Anesth Analg, 73:502-10, 1991.

Shapiro, M.B., Lightning Cataracts, Wisc.Med.J., 83:23, 1984.

Sharma, Paraplegia as a Result of Lightning Injury, B.M.J., 25 Nov. 1978, p. 1464.

Sharp D. Lightning strikes. Lancet. 2002 Aug 3;360(9330):354.

Shaw, D., and York Moore, M., Neuropsychiatric Sequelae of Lightning Stroke. Brit. Med. J., 2:1152 5, 1957.

* Sheela SR, Kattakkayam MM, Borappa K. An unusual case of lightning injury. Indian Pediatr. 2000 Jul;37(7):802 3.

Sheppard, L.B., Report of an Eye Injured by Lightning, Am.J.Ophth., 28:195, 1945.

Silbergleit,A., Trenkner, S., Dysphagia following Lightning Strike, Dysphagia, 2:228-9, 1988.

Silverman, N.M., Unilateral Deafness as Sequel to Non Fatal Lightning Stroke, J.Indiana Med. A., 29:530, 1936, quoted in Ravitch (1961).

Simon, S., Silver, C., Litchman, H., Lightning Shock with Recurrent Fractures of the 5th Metacarpal Bone, Clin. Orthop. Rel. Rsch., 32:100-9, 1964.

* Simonet P. Laboratory scale evidence for lightning mediated gene transfer in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001 Aug;67(8):3440 4.

Simpson, G.C., Lightning, Nature (supp), 124:801-812, 1929.

Singleton, G.T., Keim, R.J., Whitaker, D.L., and Kemker, F.J., Cordless Telephone : A Threat to Hearing, Ann. Otol. Rhino Laryngol, 93:565 568, 1984.

* Singh NK, Kumar R. Lightning injury with survival. J Assoc Physicians India. 2000 Aug;48(8):849.

Sinha, A.K., Lightning Induced Myocardial Injury A Case Report With Management, Angiol, 36(5):327, 1985.

Skan, D.A., Death from Lightning Stroke with Multiple Injuries, B.M.J., 1:666, 1949.

Slingerland, I., Lightning Stroke, Med. Soc. N.Y., 14(9):466, 1914.

Smirnov, D., Zaplatin, Z., Kovyazin, V., et al., A Case of Successful Resuscitaion of a Patient Struck With Lightning, Anest Reanimat., 6:65, 1988.

Smith, J., Lightning Injuries, J.Em.Nurs., 9(5):248, 1983.

Smith, T., On Lightning, Br. Med. J., 303:1563, 1991.

Soltermann, B., Frutiger, A., Kuhn, M., Lightning Injury with Lung Bleeding in a Tracheotomized Patient, Chest, 99:240-2, 1991.

Sommer LK, Lund-Andersen H. Skin burn, bilateral iridocyclitis and amnesia following a lightning injury. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2004 Oct;82(5):596-8.

Soni, U., Mistry, B., Mallya, S., Grewal, D., Varadkar, S., Acoustic effects of lightning, Auris, Nasus, Larynx, 20(4):285-9, 1993.

Soran A. Lightning injuries. South Med J. 2003 Sep;96(9):942; author reply 942-3.

Spencer, H.A., Lightning Stroke and its Treatment, Ball.Tind.Cox, Lond., 1934.

Spencer, S., Telephone Related Lightning Injury -(Comment on Andrews, C.J., Med J. Aust, 157:823-6, 1992), Med J. Aust., 158:435, 1993, with author’s reply.

Spieth, M., Kimura, R., Schryer, T., Air traffic controller lightning strike, Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(9):713-5, 1994.

Spirov, A., Damage of the Ear by Thunderbolt, Vojnosanit. Pregl., 25(12):648, 1968.

Standards Assoc Australia, Telecommunications Overvoltage Protection, Part I Protection of Persons, Draft Standard for Comment DR94004, SAA Australia, 1994.

Stanley Turner, H.M., Death by Lightning (letter), B.M.J., Oct 24, 1942, p503.

Stanley, L.D., and Suss, R.A., Intracerebral Haematoma Secondary to Lightning Stroke: Case Report and Review of Literature, Neurosurg., 16(5):686, 1985.

Steiger, S.M., Orville, R., Huffines, G., Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Characteristics over Houston, Texas: 1989-2000, J G R, 107(D11), 2002.

Steinbaum, S., Harveil, J., Jaffin, J., Jordan, M., Lightning Strike to the Head: Case Report, J. Trauma, 36(1):113-5, 1994.

Stewart CE. When lightning strikes. Emerg Med Serv. 2000 Mar;29(3):57 67; quiz 103.
& Stolle R., Infarktahnliche Ekg Veranderungen nach Blitzschlag., Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Innere Medizin und Ihre Grenzgebiete. 23(19):603 6, 1968 Oct 1.

Strasser, E.J., Davis, R.M., and Menchey, M.J., Lightning Injuries, J.Trauma, 17:315, 1977.

Stratman, H.G., and Kennedy, H.L., Torsade de Pointes associated with drigs and toxins: Recognition and Treatment, Am Heart J., p 1481, June 1987.

Struzewski, B., and Struzewski, P., Lightning Discharge not causing Death as a Significant Hazard for Human Hearing Organ, 18th Int. Conf. on Lightn. Protn, Munich, VDE Verlag GmbH, pp. 439 447, 1985. (Paper 6.8)

Subramanian, N., Somasundaram, B., and Periasamy, J.K. Cardiac Injury Due to Lightning Report of a Survivor, Indian Heart J., 37(1):72, 1985.

& Suchan J. [Survival following a strike by lightning].Cas Lek Cesk. 1979 Apr 27;118(17):533. Czech.

Sun GH, Simons JP, Mandell DL. Bilateral perilymphatic fistulas from a lightning strike: a case report. Laryngoscope. 2006 Jun;116(6):1039-42.

Suri, M.L., and Vijayan, G.P., Neurological Sequelae of Lightning, J. Assoc. Phys. Ind., 26 : 209 212, 1978.

Sweeney PJ A bolt from the blue: lightning strike to the head. Neurology. 1998 Mar;50(3):830. (letter and reply)

Swindale NV. Brain development: Lightning is always seen, thunder always heard. Curr Biol. 2000 Jul 27 Aug 10;10(15):R569 71.

& Szewczyk Bochenska N., Przypadek zacmy piorunowej., Klinika Oczna. 36(3):421 5, 1966.

Takahashi, Y., Two Hundred Years of Lichtenberg Figures, J. Electrostat., 6:1-13, 1979.

Tandberg, D., Brown, M., Destruction of Hearing Aid by Lightning Strike, Am J Emerg Med., 8(4):326-8, 1990.

* Tassev T., Alteration de l’ouie sous l’action de la foudre, JFORL. Journal Francais d Oto Rhino Laryngologie, Audiophonologie et Chirurgie Maxillo Faciale. 23(9):815 20, 1974 Nov.

Taussig, H., ‘Death’ from lightning and the Possibility of Living Again, Ann.Int.Med., 68:1345, 1968.

Telecom Aust., Customer Protection Against Lightning Injury, Report on All States Conference, Melbourne, Sept. 1985.
Containing, inter alia:
Customer Lightning Incidents Legal Aspects.
Bassett, P., Analysis of Lightning Incidents.
Schmidtchen, P.J., Analysis of Customer Lightning Incidents.

Telecom Australia, Lightning Protection at Customer’s Premises, Technical Standard TPH0265, 1982, and progressively updated.

Telecom Australia, Customer Protection From Lightning, Technical Standard TPQ0068, 1983 and progressively updated.

ten Duis, H., Hij die het onweer hoort, is niet door de bliksem getroffen, Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 138(37):1855-9, 1994.

ten Duis HJ, Acute electrical burns., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 381 6.

ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., and Nijsten, N.W.N., et al., Superficial Lightning Injuries their ‘fractal’ shape and Origin, Burns, 13(2):141 6, 1987.

ten Duis, H.J., Klasen, H.J., and Reenalda, P.E., Keraunoparalysis, a ‘specific’ lightning injury. Burns Incl Therm Inj; 12(1):54 7, 1985.

ten Duis, H.J., Lightning Strikes: danger overhead, Br J Sports Med, 32(4):276-8, 1998.

Terranova,S., Su un Caso di Infarto Miocardico da Elettrocuzione Atmosferica, Rif. Med., 71(4):93 96,1957.

& Tesinsky P. Valova M., Uveitida a odchlipeni sitnice po zasahu bleskem., Ceskoslovenska Oftalmologie. 29(5):375 8, 1973 Sep.

Thomas, M., Pillai, M., Das, K., Intracranial Haematoma Resulting from Lightning Strike, JAPI, 39(5):421-2, 1991.

Thomas PC, Kumar P. High tension electrical injury from a telephone receiver. Burns. 2001 Aug;27(5):502 3.

Tibesar RJ, Roy S, Hom DB. Bilateral Le Fort I fracture from a lightning strike injury to the face. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2000 Nov;123(5):647 9.

‘ Tolnay S., A halloszerv villamserulese., Orvosi Hetilap. 108(15):696 8, 1967 Apr 9.

Todd, D., An unusual otolaryngologic manifestation of lightning strike, Otolar. – Head and Neck Surg., 110(1):126-9, 1994.

Tribble, C., Persing, J., Morgan, R., et al., Lightning Injuries, Comprehen. Ther., 11(2):32-40, 1985.

Tseng, Y., Tsai, M., Wu, M., Lightning Injury: Report of a Case, J Formos Med Assn., 92(8):759-761, 1993.

Tveteras, K., Kristensen, S., Clausen, I., Fatal Lynnedslagsulykker, Ugestr. Laeger, 146:1858-9, 1984.

Tveteras, K., Kristensen, S., Lynnedslagsulykker, Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, 104(22):1413-4, 1984.

Uman, M.A., Understanding Lightning, Bek, Carnegie, Pa, 1971.

Uman, M., and Krider, P., Natural and Artificially Initiated Lightning, Science, 246, Oct 89, pp457-464.

van Zomeren AH, et al Lightning stroke and neuropsychological impairment: cases and questions .J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1998 Jun;64(6):763 9

Vavrek, R., Holle, R., and Allsop, J., Flash to Bang, personal communication, published.

Vavrek, R., Holle, R., and Lopez, R., Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations, 8th Symp Educ., Am. Meteor. Soc., Dallas Texas, 10-15 Jan 1999, Paper P1.28.

Vega LA, de Quevedo Garcia JA, Santamaria CT, Porras MC. Clinical picture: An unwanted tattoo. Lancet. 2001 Nov 17;358(9294):1681.

Veimeister, P.E., The Lightning Book, MIT Press, Cambridge, Ma., 1972.

Verd, S., Henshaw, D., Sharma, A., Childhood Cancer in schools with a radioactive lightning rod, Letter in Possession, no formal reference available.

* Vianello F. A man in the thunderstorm: coronary injuries and electric shock. Cardiology. 1997 Sep Oct;88(5):486.

Vigansky, H., General Summary of Lightning 1985, Storm Data, 27(12):37-44, 1985.

Virenque C. Laguerre J., Les accidents de la fulguration, Anesthesie, Analgesie, Reanimation. 33(5):775 84, 1976 Sep Oct.

Vivian D. Recommendations for lightning protection in sport. Med J Aust. 2002 Oct 21;177(8):463 4. (discussion on Makdissi, et al.)

Volinsky, J., Hanson, J., Lustig, J., Tunnessen, W., Jr., Clinical picture. Lightning burns., Archives of Family Medicine, 3(8):657-8, 1994.

Volinsky, J., Hanson, J., Lustig J., Picture of the month. Lightning burns. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 148(5):529-30, 1994.

Wahab, A., And Matsubara, I., Scale Model Experimental Study on the Effect of Lightning Stroke Inclination on the Overvoltages across Insulator Strings, Elec Pwr Syst Res., 32(1):55-61, 1995.

Wakasugi, C., and Masui,M., Secondary Brain Hemorrhages Associated with Lightning Stroke: Report of a Case, Jpn. J. Legal Med., 40(1):42 6, 1986.

Walsh, KM, Hanley, MS, et al., A Survey of Lightning Policy in Selected Division I Colleges, J Athl Trg, 32(3):206-253, 1997.

& Wanner Olsen H, et al [[Lightning accidents in ]rhus 1991 1993]].Ugeskr Laeger. 1996 Dec 9;158(50):7246 7. Danish.

Webb J; Srinivasan J; Fahmy F; Frame JD, Unusual skin injury from lightning [letter], Lancet. 1996 Feb 3; 347(8997): 321

Weeramanthri, T., Puddey, I., Beilen, L., Lightning Strike and Autonomic Failure – Coincidence or Causally Related, J. Roy. Soc. Med., 84:687-8, 1991.

Wehe, W., Report of a Case of Burns from Lightning, Int. J. Surg., June 1918, pp. 191 194.

Weinstein, L., Lightning : A Rare Cause of Intrauterine Death with Maternal Survival, S. Med. J., 72(5):632 3, 1979.

& Wiesinger J., Blitzgefahren und Blitzschutz im Gebirge, Zfa Zeitschrift Fur Allgemeinmedizin. 52(5):265 8, 1976 Feb 20.

Weiss, K.S., Otological Lightning Bolts, Am. J. Otolaryngol, 1(4):334 7, 1980.

West, G., Lightning as a cause of Hearing Loss, Md. State. Med. J., 4(1):35 7, 1955.

Wetli CV. Keraunopathology. An analysis of 45 fatalities. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1996 Jun;17(2):89 98.

Whitcomb D, Martinez JA, Daberkow D. Lightning injuries. South Med J. 2002 Nov;95(11):1331-4.

Wilbourn AJ, Peripheral nerve disorders in electrical and lightning injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Sep; 15(3): 241 55.

Williams, E.R., The Electrification of Thunderstorms, Sc Am., Nov, 1988, pp48-65.

Wollinsky, K., Mehrkens, H., Unfalle durch elektrischen Strom und Blitzschlag, Deutsche Krankenpflegezeitschrift, 46(6):397-403, 1993.

Woods, J., Spinal Atrophic Paralysis Following Lightning Strike, S A Med J, 26:92 -3, 1952.

* Woods P. Lightning and the threat it poses. Health Estate J. 1995 Sep;49(7):12 3.

Wright, J.W., and Silk, K.L., Acoustic and Vestibular Defects in Lightning Survivors, Laryngoscope, 84:1378 1387, 1974.

Yamane, H., Sato, M., Ideguchi, T., Tokuda, M., New lightning-surge test method for subscriber telecommunication equipment considering nearby lightning return strokes, IEICE Trans. Commun., E78B(2):193-8, 1995.

Yarnell PR. Neurorehabilitation of cerebral disorders following lightning and electrical trauma. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(1):15-8.

Yarnell PR; Lammertse DP, Neurorehabilitation of lightning and electrical injuries., Semin Neurol. 1995 Dec; 15(4): 391 6.

Yi C, Liang Y, Jiexiong O, Yan H. Lightning induced cataract and neuroretinopathy. Retina. 2001;21(5):526 8.

Yost, J.W., and Holmes, F.F., Myoglobinuria Following Lightning Stroke, JAMA, 228:1147, 1974.

Youngs, R., Deck, J., Kwok, P., Hawke, M., Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss Caused by Lightning, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 114:1184-7, 1988.

Zack F, et al Myocardial injury due to lightning.Int J Legal Med. 1997;110(6):326 8.

Zafren, K., Presentation of Cases – Lightning Injuries, Wild Env Med 10(4):253-5, 1999.

Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry JP, Brugger H; ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM. Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM). Resuscitation. 2005 Jun;65(3):369-72.

Zeana, C.D., Acute Transient Myocardial Ischaemia After Lightning Injury, Int.J.Cardiol., 5:207, 1984.

Zegel, F., Lightning Deaths in the United States: A Seven Year Survey from 1959 to 1965, Weatherwise, Aug 1967, pp168-173 and 179.

Zehender, M., Images in clinical medicine. Struck by lightning., New England Journal of Medicine. 330(21):1492, 1994.

Zimmermann C, Cooper MA, Holle RL. Lightning safety guidelines. Ann Emerg Med. 2002 Jun;39(6):660 4.

& Zubarev SF., Sluchai dvustoronnei katarakty ot molnii., Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie Kirgizii. 3:62 3, 1971 May Jun.

[No authors listed] Death by lightning [editorial].Lancet. 1977 Jan 29;1(8005):230.

[No authors listed] Lightning associated deaths United States 1980 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 May 22;47(19):391 4.

[No authors listed] Lightning injury.Can Med Assoc J. 1983 Apr 15;128(8):893 4.

& [No Authors listed] When Ligtning Strikes, Harv Mens Health Watch, 3(11):6-7, 1999.

* [No authors listed] Leapfrog Group patient safety initiatives draw kudos, criticism. Qual Lett Healthc Lead. 2002 Feb;14(2):11 2, 1.

[No authors listed] Part 8: advanced challenges in resuscitation. Section 3: special challenges in ECC. 3G: electric shock and lightning strikes. European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation. 2000 Aug 23;46(1 3):297 9.

[No authors listed] Lightning associated injuries and deaths among military personnel United States, 1998 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002 Sep 27;51(38):859 62.

[No authors listed] Staying safe in the great outdoors. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2000 Jul Aug;19(4):12.

[No authors listed] Recreation. Summertime and the living is risky. Harv Health Lett. 2001 Jun;26(8):7.

* [No authors listed] Lightning safety tips. Health News. 2002 Aug;8(8):8 9.

C, Lightning Safety, NCAA Guideline 1D, NCAA Sp Med Handbook, 1997-8.

C, Special Resuscitation Situations, JAMA, 268(16):2242-50, 1992.

C, Death by Lightning, Lancet, Jan 29 1977, p230.

C, Lightning Associated Deaths – United States, 1980-1995, MMWR, 47(19):391-4.

C, Lightning Safety Group Recommendations, Am Met Soc Conf, Phoenix Az, 1998

* [No authors listed] Verhutung von Blitzunfallen., Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 112(39):1 2, 1970 Sep 25.