Pre-Clinical Currents

Pre-Clinical Currents 2017-06-09T10:27:11+00:00

Evaluation of a novel cyanoacrylate adhesive for repair of dural tears in a canine model.

Repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks resulting from either spontaneous, iatrogenic or disease causes, remain difficult to manage. The use of cyanoacrylate adhesives (CA) for tissue adhesion is well documented in the literature. The primary advantage of the CA’s relates to their excellent bonding strength, however, internal use of the product has been shown to elicit an inflammatory response in the surrounding tissues. Previous studies have shown that even topical application of some cyanoacrylates result in tissue toxicity. In an effort to alleviate the deleterious effects associated with the use of the short chain cyanoacrylates, new longer chain formulations are currently being evaluated. This study examines the use of a novel, non-ethyl CA formulation in a dural wound model. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of a new cyanoacrylate derivative designed for internal use.

Dural repair using AlloDerm in conjunction with fibrin tissue adhesive.

Surgical repair of dural tears may require the use of replacement tissues in situations where there is inadequate dura remaining for closure over the brain. Several tissues such as muscle, fascia and alloplastic materials such as AlloDerm, have been used to close dural leaks. This study examines the use of AlloDerm in conjuction with a homologous fibrin tissue adhesive for dural repair.

Obliteration of the frontal sinus using fibrin tissue adhesive.

Chronic frontal sinus infections often require obliteration of the frontal sinus in order to prevent recurrence of infections or bone disease. Many different materials have been used for frontal sinus obliteration including fat, bone and cartilage. A problem often encountered with the use of these materials is that they tend to absorb over time leading to dead space that may lead to the recurrence of disease. This study evaluates the use of demineralized bone matrix in combination of fibrin tissue adhesive for obliteration of the frontal sinus in the cat model.

Homologous cartilage implants: The importance of carving technique on cartilage implant warping.

Cartilage tissue is frequently used as a graft implant material for a variety of facial plastic and reconstructive cases. When used for nasal dorsum augmentation, the carving techniques used to prepare the implant are critical to minimize or alleviate subsequent long term warping of the cartilage implant. This study examines various carving techniques of harvested and reimplanted rib cartilage at various time points in a pig model.

Wound closure technique and its effect on scarring.

Scar formation is a natural result of the healing process. The goal of the facial plastic and reconstructive surgeon is to minimize visual scar formation through various techniques. This porcine animal study evaluates topical skin closure techniques and treatments and there effects on visual scar formation.

Gene therapy of the inner ear.

Connexin mutations are associated with a large percentage of non-syndromic deafness. However, at least 26 genes have been identified whose mutation results in deafness. There may be multiple genes, co-expressed with connexins, forming a genetic network in which mutation of key nodes results in deafness. To understand the mechanism of connexin-mediated hearing loss, it is necessary to examine the genetic context in which connexins are expressed. DNA microarrays have become an invaluable tool in elucidating such genetic networks, but their power has not yet been brought to bear on the inner ear of the mouse, which is the primary model for hearing research. This study aims to address this issue by using computational analysis of mouse cochlear gene expression to identify gene clusters containing connexins, thus helping to delineate genetic networks underlying specific types of hearing loss and deafness.

The effects of hypoxia on the laryngeal chemoreflex.

The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR) is a reflex that many animals, including humans, develop early in their infancy. The time period during which the reflex appears in humans corresponds to the time period during which human infants are most likely to die as a result of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). It is believed that the LCR may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to SIDS in humans.

The purpose of this study is to examine the laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), a reflex specific to the larynx, under both normal conditions and under conditions of low blood oxygen concentration (hypoxia). It has been shown that chemical stimulation of the larynx, (acidic materials regurgitated by the stomach, milk, water and others materials as well) may cause young children generally between the ages of 2 to 6 months to experience episodes of low blood pressure, low pulse rate, and the cessation of breathing. The study will examine the effects of chemical stimulation of the larynx on young pigs under controlled conditions.

Exploration of an animal model to study skin aging for the development of relevant treatment alternatives to the affects of aging skin.

Deterioration of dermal collagen resulting in wrinkle formation and the loss of skin integrity is a natural part of the aging process. This study examines various animal models and possible treatments to slow or reverse the aging process.

Vestibular Ototoxicity in the Frog Model

A treatment modality for Menieres disease is topical gentamicin therapy, which is vestibulotoxic. This project examines the ampullar organ in the frog model after ototoxic insults to study cellular heterogeneity, and the phenomenon of regeneration of sensory receptors.